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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

The Rhetorical Structure Of Modus Tollens: An Exploration In Logic-Mining, Andrew Potter Jan 2020

The Rhetorical Structure Of Modus Tollens: An Exploration In Logic-Mining, Andrew Potter

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A general method for mining discourse for occurrences of the rules of inference would be useful in a variety of natural language processing applications. The method described here has its roots in Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST). An RST analysis of a rule of inference can be used as an exemplar to produce a relational complex in the form of a nested relational proposition. This relational complex can be transformed into a logical expression using the logic of relational propositions. The expression can then be generalized as a logical signature for use in logic-mining discourse for instances of the rule. Generalized ...


Self-Knowledge, Choice Blindness, And Confabulation, Hayley F. Webster Jul 2019

Self-Knowledge, Choice Blindness, And Confabulation, Hayley F. Webster

Doctoral Dissertations

There are two kinds of epistemic theories about self-knowledge: the traditional account, and the inferentialist account. According to the traditional view of self-knowledge, we have privileged access to our propositional attitudes. “Privileged access” means that one can gain knowledge of one’s own propositional attitudes directly via an exclusive, first-personal method called introspection. On the other hand, the inferentialist view of self-knowledge postulates that we don’t have privileged access to our propositional attitudes and must infer or self-attribute them instead. In this thesis I argue that the traditional view of self-knowledge, which postulates that we have privileged access to ...


Tourism Operators On Trial: Pushing The Animal Justice Agenda Forward In Tourism In Spite Of Theory, David Fennell, Val Sheppard Jun 2019

Tourism Operators On Trial: Pushing The Animal Justice Agenda Forward In Tourism In Spite Of Theory, David Fennell, Val Sheppard

TTRA Canada 2019 Conference

Abstract:

Justice tourism is emerging to be a topic of considerable interest as scholars strive to emphasise several important themes around the fair distribution of resources and benefits between and within societies (Mihalic & Fennell, 2014; Smith & Duffy, 2003). There is the belief that tourism must be ethical, share equity, underscore solidarity between hosts and guests, and place emphasis on respect, self-determination, as well as benefits on many different social, economic, and cultural levels (Scheyvens, 2002). An example of this type of research comes from Jamal and Camargo (2014), who discuss how limited distributive justice can be within destinations as dominant bodies protect ...


Queering Media Archaeology, Mira Stolpe Törneman Mar 2019

Queering Media Archaeology, Mira Stolpe Törneman

communication +1

This contribution outlines a theory of the performative nature of queer media agency. Drawing on key concepts in the work of Judith Butler and Michel Foucault, it looks at how media themselves can be queer and act subversively in relation to a historically contingent discursive order as well as on the impact of the continuum between material bodies and media as they are reconfigured in the digital. It highlights repetition and reproducibility as shared core concerns of queer theory and media archaeology and seeks to show that the former has a lot of bearing on the latter. Queer theory also ...


Exploring The Easy Road To Nominalism, Jordan Kroll Oct 2018

Exploring The Easy Road To Nominalism, Jordan Kroll

Doctoral Dissertations

My dissertation is divided into three self-contained chapters, each of which explores some facet of nominalism. The overall aim is to explicate and defend a nominalist approach that recognizes the utility of talking about, or presupposing the existence of, abstract objects even if no such objects exist.

The first chapter begins with a question: why is talk about abstract mathematical entities so useful in describing and explaining the physical world? Here is an answer: talk about such entities is useful for describing and explaining the physical world insofar as there is some appropriate structural similarity between them and the target ...


Transit, Christopher Janke Oct 2018

Transit, Christopher Janke

Masters Theses

This written thesis, transit, accompanies an exhibition by the same name and serves to contextualize the exhibit. The written portion begins with an inquiry into the nature of the contextualization itself, questioning the nature of the relationship between the written thesis, the exhibit, and the University which explicitly requires and connects the two, especially the ways that the written word as granted authority through an institution of higher education might undermine the exhibit’s intent to provoke thought into other forms of knowledge and other avenues of legitimacy than those presented by this institution.

The thesis discusses the philosophic question ...


Introduction: Currents In Communication And The Media Archaeological, Zachary Mcdowell, Nathanael Bassett Oct 2018

Introduction: Currents In Communication And The Media Archaeological, Zachary Mcdowell, Nathanael Bassett

communication +1

No abstract provided.


The First Person Perspective: Language, Thought, And Action, Pengbo Liu Jul 2018

The First Person Perspective: Language, Thought, And Action, Pengbo Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

What it is to have a first person perspective? How do we come to understand our own perspective in the world? How do we take into account other people's perspectives in our social and linguistic interactions? This dissertation is an exploration of these issues. But instead of approaching them in the abstract, it aims to shed light on these difficult questions through a series of case studies. First, I examine the role of the first person perspective in our agency, and explain the sense in which it is essential for action. Next, drawing on recent work in psychology, I ...


The Philosophical Value Of Reflective Endorsement, Rachel Robison Mar 2018

The Philosophical Value Of Reflective Endorsement, Rachel Robison

Doctoral Dissertations

Through the years, many philosophers have appealed to reflective endorsement to address important philosophical problems. In this dissertation, I evaluate the merits of those approaches. I first consider Christine Korsgaard’s appeal to reflective endorsement to solve what she calls “the normative problem.” I then consider Harry Frankfurt’s use of reflective endorsement as part of his account of “caring,” which plays a crucial role in his accounts of agency, free will, and personhood. I then turn to Marilyn Friedman’s use of reflective endorsement to explain autonomous action. Finally, I turn to Alan Gibbard’s use of reflective endorsement ...


Meaning And Modality, Jesse Fitts Mar 2018

Meaning And Modality, Jesse Fitts

Doctoral Dissertations

I intended to write four papers whose topics faintly concerned separate issues in meaning and modality. As it turned out, chapters 1-3 all roughly concern the same topic: propositions. While I argue for two different theses in chapters 1 and 2, I try to understand the changing propositions literature in both. In addition to arguing for the respective theses in chapters 1 and 2, accounting for this change is a parallel goal for the chapters taken together. Chapter 3 examines particular propositional roles---the objects of the attitudes and the objects of credence. Finally, chapter 4 changes the subject to the ...


Quantification And Paradox, Edward Ferrier Mar 2018

Quantification And Paradox, Edward Ferrier

Doctoral Dissertations

I argue that absolutism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is possible, is to blame for both the paradoxes that arise in naive set theory and variants of these paradoxes that arise in plural logic and in semantics. The solution is restrictivism, the view that absolutely unrestricted quantification is not possible.

It is generally thought that absolutism is true and that restrictivism is not only false, but inexpressible. As a result, the paradoxes are blamed, not on illicit quantification, but on the ``logical'' conception of set which motivates naive set theory. The accepted solution is to replace this with the ...


Applications And Extensions Of Counterpart Theory, Bridgette Peterson Nov 2017

Applications And Extensions Of Counterpart Theory, Bridgette Peterson

Doctoral Dissertations

An exploration of the details of counterpart theory, and some applications of the view. In Chapter 1, I set out the view and clarify the most important features: that the counterpart relation is a context dependent similarity relation, and that individuals are world-bound entities. I then set out what I take to be the most promising methods of filling in important details. Chapter 2 is a discussion of an alternative view, lump theory. I attempt to distinguish lump theory from counterpart theory, and argue that several attempt to do so fail. Chapter 3 is an attempt to apply counterpart theory ...


Fallibility And Normativity, Joshua Dipaolo Nov 2016

Fallibility And Normativity, Joshua Dipaolo

Doctoral Dissertations

We are fallible, and knowledge of our fallibility has normative implications. But these normative implications appear to conflict with other compelling epistemic norms. We therefore appear to face a choice: reject fallibility-based norms or reject these other epistemic norms. I argue that there is a plausible third option: reconcile these two sets of norms. Once we properly understand the nature of each of these norms, we aren’t forced to reject either.


Structuring Thought: Concepts, Computational Syntax, And Cognitive Explanation, Matthew B. Gifford Nov 2016

Structuring Thought: Concepts, Computational Syntax, And Cognitive Explanation, Matthew B. Gifford

Doctoral Dissertations

The topic of this dissertation is what thought must be like in order for the laws and generalizations of psychology to be true. I address a number of contemporary problems in the philosophy of mind concerning the nature and structure of concepts and the ontological status of mental content. Drawing on empirical work in psychology, I develop a number of new conceptual tools for theorizing about concepts, including a counterpart model of concepts' role in linguistic communication, and a deflationary theory of concepts' formal features. I also suggest some new answers to old problems, arguing, for example, that content realism ...


In Theory, There's Hope: Queer Co-(M)Motions Of Science And Subjectivity, Cordelia Sand Nov 2016

In Theory, There's Hope: Queer Co-(M)Motions Of Science And Subjectivity, Cordelia Sand

Masters Theses

Given the state of the planet at present —specifically, the linked global ecological and economic crises that conjure dark imaginings and nihilistic actualities of increasing resource depletion, poisonings, and wide-scale sufferings and extinctions—I ask What might we hope now? What points of intervention offer possibility for transformation? At best, the response can only be partial. The approach this thesis takes initiates from specific pre-discursive assumptions. The first understands current conditions as having been produced, and continuing to be so, through practices that enact and sustain neoliberal relations. Secondly, these practices are expressive of a subjectivity tied to a Cartesian ...


The Vital Network: An Algorithmic Milieu Of Communication And Control, Sandra Robinson Phd Sep 2016

The Vital Network: An Algorithmic Milieu Of Communication And Control, Sandra Robinson Phd

communication +1

The biological turn in computing has influenced the development of algorithmic control and what I call the vital network: a dynamic, relational, and generative assemblage that is self-organizing in response to the heterogeneity of contemporary network processes, connections, and communication. I discuss this biological turn in computation and control for communication alongside historically significant developments in cybernetics that set out the foundation for the development of self-regulating computer systems. Control is shifting away from models that historically relied on the human-animal model of cognition to govern communication and control, as in early cybernetics and computer science, to a decentred, nonhuman ...


Do Computers Write On Electric Screens?, Samuel Goyet, Cléo Collomb Sep 2016

Do Computers Write On Electric Screens?, Samuel Goyet, Cléo Collomb

communication +1

How do we, humans, communicate with computers, or computational machines? What are the activities do humans and machines share, what are the meeting points between the two? Eventually, how can we build concepts of these meeting points that leaves space for the proper mode of existence of both humans and machines, without subduing one to the other?

Computers are machines that operates on a scale different from humans: the calculus done by machines is too fast and untangible for humans. This is why computers' activities has to be textualized, put into a form that can be understand for humans. For ...


Introduction To "Machine Communication", Zachary J. Mcdowell, David J. Gunkel Sep 2016

Introduction To "Machine Communication", Zachary J. Mcdowell, David J. Gunkel

communication +1

No abstract provided.


Computational Interpersonal Communication: Communication Studies And Spoken Dialogue Systems, David J. Gunkel Sep 2016

Computational Interpersonal Communication: Communication Studies And Spoken Dialogue Systems, David J. Gunkel

communication +1

With the advent of spoken dialogue systems (SDS), communication can no longer be considered a human-to-human transaction. It now involves machines. These mechanisms are not just a medium through which human messages pass, but now occupy the position of the other in social interactions. But the development of robust and efficient conversational agents is not just an engineering challenge. It also depends on research in human conversational behavior. It is the thesis of this paper that communication studies is best situated to respond to this need. The paper argues: 1) that research in communication can supply the information necessary to ...


Data’S Intimacy: Machinic Sensibility And The Quantified Self, Sun-Ha Hong Sep 2016

Data’S Intimacy: Machinic Sensibility And The Quantified Self, Sun-Ha Hong

communication +1

Today, machines observe, record, sense the world – not just for us, but sometimes instead of us (in our stead), and even indifferently to us humans. And yet, we remain human. Correlationism may not be up to a comprehensive ontology, but the ways in which we encounter, and struggle to make some kind of sense of, machinic sensibility matters. The nature of that encounter is not instrumentality, or even McLuhanian extension, but a full-blown ‘relationship’ where the terms by which machines ‘experience’ the world, and communicate with each other, parametrises the conditions for our own experience. This essay will play out ...


Understanding And Its Role In Inquiry, Benjamin T. Rancourt Jul 2016

Understanding And Its Role In Inquiry, Benjamin T. Rancourt

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, I argue that understanding possesses unique epistemic value. I propose and defend a novel account of understanding that I call the management account of understanding, which is the view that an agent A understands a subject matter S just in case A has the ability to extract the relevant information and exploit it with the relevant cognitive capacities to answer questions in S. Since inquiry is the process of raising and answering questions, I argue that without understanding, it would be impossible to engage in successful inquiry. I argue that understanding is indispensable for effective cognition and ...


Agency And Reasons In Epistemology, Luis R.G. Oliveira Jul 2016

Agency And Reasons In Epistemology, Luis R.G. Oliveira

Doctoral Dissertations

Ever since John Locke, philosophers have discussed the possibility of a normative epistemology: are there epistemic obligations binding the cognitive economy of belief and disbelief? Locke's influential answer was evidentialist: we have an epistemic obligation to believe in accordance with our evidence. In this dissertation, I place the contemporary literature on agency and reasons at the service of some such normative epistemology. I discuss the semantics of obligations, the connection between obligations and reasons to believe, the implausibility of Lockean evidentialism, and some of the alleged connections between agency and justification.


The Path To Supersubstantivalism, Joshua D. Moulton Jul 2016

The Path To Supersubstantivalism, Joshua D. Moulton

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation is divided into two parts. In the first part I defend substantivalism. I do this by offering, in chapter 1, a counterpart-theoretic defense of substantivalism from Leibniz’ shift arguments. Then, in chapter 2, I defend substantivalism from the hole argument and argue, against the consensus, that the question of haecceitism is irrelevant to substantivalism in the context of general relativity.

In the second part of the dissertation I defend supersubstantivalism. I do this by offering, in chapter 3, an argument against dualistic substantivalism. The argument appeals to plausible principles of modal plenitude to show that the dualist is ...


Physical Geometry, James P. Binkoski Jul 2016

Physical Geometry, James P. Binkoski

Doctoral Dissertations

All physical theories, from classical Newtonian mechanics to relativistic quantum field theory, entail propositions concerning the geometric structure of spacetime. To give an example, the general theory of relativity entails that spacetime is curved, smooth, and four-dimensional. In this dissertation, I take the structural commitments of our theories seriously and ask: how is such structure instantiated in the physical world? Mathematically, a property like 'being curved' is perfectly well-defined insofar as we know what it means for a mathematical space to be curved. But what could it mean to say that the physical world is curved? Call this the problem ...


Facts And Photographs: Visualizing The Invisible With Spirit And Thought Photography, Margarida Medeiros Sep 2015

Facts And Photographs: Visualizing The Invisible With Spirit And Thought Photography, Margarida Medeiros

communication +1

Photography has been related to a positivist aim since its beginning and its genealogy is generally drawn from the realism of the camera obscura. But when it comes to the sort of photographs usually called “spirit photography” and “fluid and thought photography”, classic theorists like Barthes, Rosalind Krauss and Tom Gunning tend to relate this practice with the magic and the ‘uncanny’ reception that occurred at its very beginnings. In this paper I will point out that the main question is to question the possibility of a “spiritualist document”, and, in this sense, we will connect this issue to the ...


Insensible And Inexplicable - On The Two Meanings Of Occult, Florian Sprenger Sep 2015

Insensible And Inexplicable - On The Two Meanings Of Occult, Florian Sprenger

communication +1

While the distinction between spiritualism and science was understood affirmatively as a demarcation of true science against pseudo-science, nowadays, after several Science Wars, it is obvious for us that this distinction does not correspond to the actual practices of science but reflects a work of ‘purification’ typical for modernity in the Latourian sense. In the physico-philosophical surroundings of this boundary epistemological foundations are shaped and modern science is constituted as the primary way to knowledge. Referring to studies on the history of the occult in the early modern period, the article shows that in order to understand the stakes of ...


A Defense Of Russellian Descriptivism, Brandt H. Van Der Gaast Nov 2014

A Defense Of Russellian Descriptivism, Brandt H. Van Der Gaast

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, I defend a Russellian form of descriptivism. The main supporting argument invokes a relation between meaning and thought. I argue that the meanings of sentences are the thoughts people use them to express. This is part of a Gricean outlook on meaning according to which psychological intentionality is prior to, and determinative of, linguistic intentionality.

The right approach to thought, I argue in Chapter 1, is a type of functionalism on which thoughts have narrow contents. On this view, the attitude ascriptions of a regimented psychology capture what people really believe and desire. These attitude ascriptions have ...


Hear After: Matters Of Life And Death In David Tudor’S Electronic Music, You Nakai Sep 2014

Hear After: Matters Of Life And Death In David Tudor’S Electronic Music, You Nakai

communication +1

In David Tudor’s electronic music, home-brew modular devices were carefully connected together to form complex feedback networks wherein all components—including the composer/performer himself—could only partially ‘influence’ one another. Once activated, the very instability of mismatched connections between the components triggered a cascade of signals and signal modulations, so that the work “composed itself,” and took “a life of its own.” Due to this self-producing, perpetuating nature of his works, Tudor insisted on what he called “the view from inside,” focusing more on the internal observation of his devices and sound than in materials external to the ...


Clean By Nature. Lively Surfaces And The Holistic-Systemic Heritage Of Contemporary Bionik., Jan Mueggenburg Sep 2014

Clean By Nature. Lively Surfaces And The Holistic-Systemic Heritage Of Contemporary Bionik., Jan Mueggenburg

communication +1

This paper addresses questions regarding the prospering field of Bionik in Germany. Its starting point is the wide spread assumption that universal functional principles exist in nature and that these ‘solutions’ can be transferred into technological objects. Accordingly, advocates of Bionik herald the advent of a better world with more sustainable and efficient products of engineering. The so-called ‘functional surfaces’ occupy a special place within this contemporary version of biomimesis. Shark-skin-inspired swim suits, self-cleaning façade paints with lotus effect or drag reducing Dolphin-Skins for aircraft-wings are expected to improve the quality of life for everyone. It seems that skin and ...


John Lilly, The Mind Of The Dolphin, And Communication Out Of Bounds, Bruce Clarke Sep 2014

John Lilly, The Mind Of The Dolphin, And Communication Out Of Bounds, Bruce Clarke

communication +1

In this essay I develop a systems-theoretical observation of John Lilly’s cybernetics of communication in his 1967 work The Mind of the Dolphin. The eight-year-old project that The Mind of the Dolphin recounts for public consumption details his aspiration to achieve an unprecedented breakthrough beyond companionate communion to fully abstract linguistic communication across species boundaries. Between 1959 and 1968 Lilly wagered and lost his mainstream scientific career largely over this audacious, ultimately inconclusive bid to establish and document for scientific validation “communication with a nonhuman mind.” In that effort, however, he mobilized the best available tools, a cutting-edge array ...