Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Arts and Humanities Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Harmonic Serialism And Parallelism, John J. Mccarthy Jan 2000

Harmonic Serialism And Parallelism, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

The most familiar architecture for Optimality Theory is a fully parallel one, meaning that "all possible ultimate outputs are contemplated at once" (Prince and Smolensky 1993: 79). But Prince and Smolensky also briefly entertain a serial architecture for OT, called Harmonic Serialism. The idea is that Gen Eval iterates, sending the output of Eval back into Gen as a new input. This loop continues until the derivation converges (i.e., until Eval returns the same form as the input to Gen). There are clear resemblances between this approach and theories based on notions like derivational economy (e.g., Chomsky 1995 ...


The Prosody Of Phrase In Rotuman, John J. Mccarthy Jan 2000

The Prosody Of Phrase In Rotuman, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

The "phase" alternation in Rotuman is remarkable (and has attracted a good deal of previous attention) for two reasons. First, the shape differences between phases are quite diverse, involving resyllabification, deletion, umlaut, and metathesis. Second, the phase alternation produces prosodic structures that are otherwise unattested in this language, replacing simple (C)V syllables with closed and diphthongal ones. In this article, I argue that Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993) helps to make sense of both these observations. I also go on to use these results to support some claims about the nature of templates and prosodic circumscription in the ...


Reduplication With Fixed Segmentism, John J. Mccarthy, John Alderete, Jill Beckman, Laura Benua, Amalia Gnanadesikan, Suzanne Urbanczyk Jan 1999

Reduplication With Fixed Segmentism, John J. Mccarthy, John Alderete, Jill Beckman, Laura Benua, Amalia Gnanadesikan, Suzanne Urbanczyk

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

Fixed segmentism is the phenomenon whereby a reduplicative morpheme contains segments that are invariant rather than copied. We investigate it within Optimality Theory, arguing that it falls into two distinct types, phonological and morphological. Phonological fixed segmentism is analyzed under the OT rubric of emergence of the unmarked. It therefore has significant connections to markedness theory, sharing properties with other domains where markedness is relevant and showing context-dependence. In contrast, morphological fixed segmentism is a kind of affixation, and so it resembles affixing morphology generally. The two types are contrasted, and claims about impossible patterns of fixed segmentism are developed.


Faithfulness And Identity In Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1999

Faithfulness And Identity In Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

This article is largely based on the more extensive study McCarthy & Prince (1995), but includes significant further analysis of the typology of reduplication-phonology interactions and new discussion of the connection between base-reduplicant identity and Generalized Template Theory (McCarthy & Prince 1994), which eliminates the template as a unitary linguistic object.

Base-reduplicant Identity is accomplished through the same formal types of constraints as input-output Faithfulness, via the theory of correspondence (McCarthy & Prince 1994, 1995), which provides a general means of regulating similarity between linguistic representations. Phenomena described as over- and under-application, where base-reduplicant identity effects come in conflict with and over-ride otherwise ...


Distinctive Features, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1999

Distinctive Features, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Review Of Iggy Roca (Ed.) (1997) Derivations And Constraints In Phonology, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1999

Review Of Iggy Roca (Ed.) (1997) Derivations And Constraints In Phonology, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Sympathy And Phonological Opacity, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1999

Sympathy And Phonological Opacity, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

This paper explores the nature of phonological opacity (in the sense of Kiparsky 1971, 1973) within Optimality Theory. Previous attempts to address opacity in OT are discussed and a novel proposal, an inter-candidate faithfulness relation called 'sympathy', is offered. Specific applications of sympathy are presented and some general results are derived about counter-bleeding, counter-feeding, multi-process, and Duke-of-York opaque interactions.


Alignment And Parallelism In Indonesian Phonology, John J. Mccarthy, Abigail Cohn Jan 1998

Alignment And Parallelism In Indonesian Phonology, John J. Mccarthy, Abigail Cohn

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

In this paper, we present a complete account of word stress in Indonesian and the ways in which it interacts with affixation, limitations on root structure, PrWd juncture, syllabification, and reduplication, developing and extending the ideas and empirical material in Cohn (1989). Phenomena that had formerly been analyzed in terms of the phonology/morphology mapping, the cycle, (non-)iterative foot assignment, and morpheme-structure constraints are all subsumed under Generalized Alignment.

Parallelism leads to examination of Alignment-based alternatives to the cycle, in which the influence of morphology on prosodic structure is direct. Furthermore, several conditions are discussed where only a parallel ...


Morpheme Structure Constraints And Paradigm Occultation, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1998

Morpheme Structure Constraints And Paradigm Occultation, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

The morpheme structure constraints of classic generative phonology impose language-particular restrictions on underlying representations. It has long been known that MSCís often duplicate the functions of rules or output constraints, and so Stampe, Prince & Smolensky, and others have proposed to eliminate them. In OT, the descriptive effects of MSC’s are obtained from rankings that compel neutralization of potential underlying distinctions. One input is said to occult the other when both map onto a common output.

This paper has focused on MSC’s that prevent alternations within a paradigm. Absence of alternation is an effect of high-ranking output-output faithfulness constraints ...


Review Of Alan S. Kaye, Ed. (1997) Phonologies Of Asia And Africa: (Including The Caucasus), John J. Mccarthy Jan 1998

Review Of Alan S. Kaye, Ed. (1997) Phonologies Of Asia And Africa: (Including The Caucasus), John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Process-Specific Constraints In Optimality Theory, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1997

Process-Specific Constraints In Optimality Theory, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

Similar phonological processes can be governed by different constraints. Davis (1995) claims that the effect of such process-specific constraints cannot be obtained in Optimality Theory (OT), exemplifying this point with material from harmony in Palestinian Arabic. On the contrary, I show that process-specific constraints are a natural and expected result of constraint ranking, the fundamental idea of OT. Furthermore, OT makes a restrictive prediction, the subset criterion, about coexistent process-specific constraints within a single grammar—a prediction supported by the Palestinian material. Davis also presents evidence that epenthetic segments have featural specifications, claiming that OT says they are featureless. This ...


Prosodic Morphology 1986, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1996

Prosodic Morphology 1986, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

This work has circulated in manuscript form since October, 1986. Its basic contents were first presented at WCCFL 3 in spring, 1986 to an audience that was not devoid of convinced believers in the C and the V. It has been cited variously as McCarthy & Prince 1986, M&P forthcoming, and even (optimistically) M&P in press.

Many of the proposals made here have been revised, generalized, or superseded in subsequent work (see the bibliography below, p. 84), including a book ms. of nearly the same title by exactly the same authors. Junko Itô and Armin Mester have suggested to ...


Remarks On Phonological Opacity In Optimality Theory, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1996

Remarks On Phonological Opacity In Optimality Theory, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

In these remarks, I have examined the problem of phonological opacity for theories without serial ordering of rules, focusing on Optimality Theory. I have argued in favor of extending a correspondence-based approach to faithfulness to the statement of phonological markedness constraints. The core of the proposal is separate specification of the levels at which featural, adjacency, and linear order conditions must be met. I have compared this approach to two others, noting many similarities and a few differences: the structural approach adopted in Prince and Smolensky (1993) and most other OT work, and the Two-Level or Cognitive Phonology of Koskenniemi ...


Faithfulness And Reduplicative Identity, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1995

Faithfulness And Reduplicative Identity, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction; 2. Correspondence Theory; 3. Correspondence Theory and Overapplication; 4. Factorial Typology; 5. Underapplication; 6. Input-Reduplicant Correspondence; 7. Conclusion; Appendix A: Constraints on Correspondent Elements; Appendix B: Inventory of Overapplying Processes


Extensions Of Faithfulness: Rotuman Revisited, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1995

Extensions Of Faithfulness: Rotuman Revisited, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Short Review Of A. A. Al-Nassir (1993) Sibawayh The Phonologist: A Critical Study Of The Phonetic And Phonological Theory Of Sibawayh As Presented In His Treatise Al-Kitab, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1995

Short Review Of A. A. Al-Nassir (1993) Sibawayh The Phonologist: A Critical Study Of The Phonetic And Phonological Theory Of Sibawayh As Presented In His Treatise Al-Kitab, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


The Emergence Of The Unmarked: Optimality In Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1994

The Emergence Of The Unmarked: Optimality In Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

This paper identifies and illustrates a key consequence of Optimality Theory called 'emergence of the unmarked'. In OT, a constraint can be active even if it is crucially dominated. A low-ranking markedness constraint, then, can decide between candidates, as long as they tie on all higher-ranking constraints. The linguistic structure that is unmarked with respect to this constraint can emerge in such circumstances.

This notion is applied to a core problem in the theory of Prosodic Morphology, that of defining templates. The frequently encountered minimal-word template is shown to emerge from markedness constraints on prosodic structure.


Two Lectures On Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1994

Two Lectures On Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1994

Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

An overview of results in the theory of prosodic morphology.


Nonconcatenative Morphology, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1994

Nonconcatenative Morphology, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


The Phonetics And Phonology Of Semitic Pharyngeals, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1994

The Phonetics And Phonology Of Semitic Pharyngeals, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

The guttural segments of the Semitic languages form a natural class.


Generalized Alignment, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1993

Generalized Alignment, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

Structural relations between grammatical categories (here, morphological and phonological) are governed by a single family of constraints under Optimality Theory: these demand that one type of grammatical constituent share a designated edge with some other type of constituent. Evidence is considered from footing patterns, infixability, epenthesis, syllabification, and prosodic subcategorization.


Prosodic Morphology: Constraint Interaction And Satisfaction, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince Jan 1993

Prosodic Morphology: Constraint Interaction And Satisfaction, John J. Mccarthy, Alan Prince

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction; 2. Optimality Theory; 3. The Stratal Organization of Axininca Campa Morphology; 4. The Prosodic Phonology of Axininca Campa; 5. The Prosodic Morphology of Axininca Campa; 6. Comparison with Other Analyses of Axininca Campa Reduplication; 7. Prosody >> Morphology: Constraint Interaction in Prosodic Morphology; 8. Conclusion; Appendix: Stress and Velar Glide Loss; A.1. Word-level Phonology; A.2. Stress and Related Phenomena; A.3. Velar Glide Loss


A Case Of Surface Constraint Violation, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1993

A Case Of Surface Constraint Violation, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Template Form In Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1993

Template Form In Prosodic Morphology, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

A pre-OT analysis of the verbal templates in Akkadian and Arabic.


Review Of C. Paradis And J.-F. Prunet, Eds. (1991) The Special Status Of Coronals, John J. Mccarthy, Alison Taub Jan 1992

Review Of C. Paradis And J.-F. Prunet, Eds. (1991) The Special Status Of Coronals, John J. Mccarthy, Alison Taub

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Prosodic Circumscription In Choctaw Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Linda Lombardi Jan 1991

Prosodic Circumscription In Choctaw Morphology, John J. Mccarthy, Linda Lombardi

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


L'Infixation Réduplicative Dans Les Langages Secrets, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1991

L'Infixation Réduplicative Dans Les Langages Secrets, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Semitic Gutturals And Distinctive Feature Theory, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1991

Semitic Gutturals And Distinctive Feature Theory, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Synchronic Rule Inversion, John J. Mccarthy Jan 1991

Synchronic Rule Inversion, John J. Mccarthy

Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series

An earlier analysis of r/zero alternations in the Boston dialect.