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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Barriers And Enablers To Implementation Of A New Zealand-Wide Guideline For Assessment And Management Of Cardiovascular Risk In Primary Health Care: A Template Analysis, Ann Mckillop, Jackie Crisp, Kenneth Walsh Jan 2012

Barriers And Enablers To Implementation Of A New Zealand-Wide Guideline For Assessment And Management Of Cardiovascular Risk In Primary Health Care: A Template Analysis, Ann Mckillop, Jackie Crisp, Kenneth Walsh

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the enablers and barriers to guideline implementation in a primary healthcare setting by employing the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework as a template for data analysis and interpretation. Background: The use of clinical practice guidelines is pivotal to improving health outcomes. However, the implementation of guidelines into practice is complex, unpredictable, and, in spite of much investigation, remains resistant to explanation of what works and why. Optimising the enablers and minimising the barriers to implementation of a guideline for reducing cardiovascular disease risk has the potential ...


Recovery In Mental Health: A Movement Towards Well-Being And Meaning In Contrast To An Avoidance Of Symptoms, Samantha Clarke, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor Patrick Crowe Jan 2012

Recovery In Mental Health: A Movement Towards Well-Being And Meaning In Contrast To An Avoidance Of Symptoms, Samantha Clarke, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor Patrick Crowe

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Objective: This paper examines the types of goals being set by individuals in the context of Australian mental health services and whether goal type differs across the stages of recovery. Methods: Goal records of 144 individuals accessing services were reviewed to examine goal content, ratio of approach and avoidance oriented goals and changes across stages of psychological recovery. Results: Individuals further along in their recovery set significantly more approach goals and types of goals set appeared to reflect broader life roles. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Setting approach goals and goals that reflect broader life roles tends to support the ...


Stimulating An Interest In Mental Health Nursing, Lorna Moxham, Renee Brighton, Terry Froggatt, Susan Liersch, Patrea Andersen Jan 2012

Stimulating An Interest In Mental Health Nursing, Lorna Moxham, Renee Brighton, Terry Froggatt, Susan Liersch, Patrea Andersen

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

A team of researchers at the University of Wollongong are currently examining the experiences of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students as they engage in a stimulating learning experience in mental health.


The Association Between Job Demands/Control And Health In Employed Parents: The Mediating Role Of Work-To-Family Interference And Enhancement, Christopher A. Magee, Natalie Stefanic, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2012

The Association Between Job Demands/Control And Health In Employed Parents: The Mediating Role Of Work-To-Family Interference And Enhancement, Christopher A. Magee, Natalie Stefanic, Peter Caputi, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

"This paper examined whether work-to-family interference (WFI) and work-to-family enhancement (WFE) mediated the association between job demands/control and self-reported mental and physical health. Data were from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey and included 1,404 Australian adults aged 18-64 years at baseline; 820 participants provided data at three time points (baseline, 12-month follow-up, and 24-month follow-up). Self-report questionnaires assessed mental and physical health, WFI and WFE, and job demands/control. Mediation analyzes performed on the longitudinal data indicated that WFI mediated the relationships between job demands/control and self-reported mental and physical health. The findings ...


Prevalence Of Smoking And Other Health Risk Factors In People Attending Residential Substance Abuse Treatment, Peter J. Kelly, Amanda L. Baker, Frank P. Deane, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Billie Bonevski, Jenna Tregarthen Jan 2012

Prevalence Of Smoking And Other Health Risk Factors In People Attending Residential Substance Abuse Treatment, Peter J. Kelly, Amanda L. Baker, Frank P. Deane, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Billie Bonevski, Jenna Tregarthen

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Introduction and Aims. People attending substance abuse treatment have an elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for substance abuse treatment services to address smoking.The current study examined smoking behaviours of people attending residential substance abuse treatment. Additionally, the study examined rates of other potentially modifiable health risk factors for the development of CVD and cancer. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was completed by participants attending Australian Salvation Army residential substance abuse treatment services (n = 228). Rates of smoking, exercise, dietary fat intake, body mass index and depression were identified ...


Improving Therapeutic Use Of Homework: Suggestions From Mental Health Clinicians, Peter Kelly, Frank P. Deane Jan 2011

Improving Therapeutic Use Of Homework: Suggestions From Mental Health Clinicians, Peter Kelly, Frank P. Deane

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background. The majority of mental health clinicians report the use of homework to support their case management, but practitioner surveys indicate that homework is not routinely used. Aims. To examine barriers that mental health case managers experience in implementing homework and to identify strategies to promote successful homework administration. Method. One hundred thirty-four surveys were completed by mental health case managers. The survey examined their use of homework for individuals diagnosed with a severe mental health problem. It also asked them to identify barriers to regularly implement homework and describe strategies to promote more regular use of homework. Results. On ...


A Strong Commitment To Mental Health Nursing, Renee Brighton, Angela Brown, Terence Froggatt, Susan Liersch Jan 2011

A Strong Commitment To Mental Health Nursing, Renee Brighton, Angela Brown, Terence Froggatt, Susan Liersch

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health (SNMIH) at the University of Wollongong, places great emphasis on providing nursing students with fundamental education and knowledge in mental health nursing. There are two dedicated undergraduate mental health subjects delivered within the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) program. Both subjects are placed in adjacent sessions to provide a consolidated speciality experience for all BN students. The two subjects incorporate core values and principles to guide the teaching of mental health nursing, learning outcomes that reflect the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (ANMC) competencies and are based on recommendations from the Mental Health ...


Implementation Of A Major In Mental Health Nursing In Australian Universities, Brenda Happell, Lorna Moxham, Karen-Ann Clarke Jan 2011

Implementation Of A Major In Mental Health Nursing In Australian Universities, Brenda Happell, Lorna Moxham, Karen-Ann Clarke

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The difficulty recruiting and retaining an adequate mental health nursing workforce is acknowledged. The major in mental health nursing has been identified as a strategy to promote this specialist area of practice as desirable for students’ future careers. Measuring its success requires the collection of detailed data about the structure, content, and uptake of these programmes. A survey was specifically developed to elicit descriptive information about the structure and content of a major in mental health nursing programmes. Fourteen universities participated in this research. Eight had implemented a major, one intends to do so in 2011, and five had abandoned ...


Parallel Processes In Clinical Supervision: Implications For Coaching Menthal Health Practitioners, Trevor P. Crowe, Lindsay G. Oades, Frank P. Deane, Joseph Ciarrochi, Virginia C. Willliams Jan 2011

Parallel Processes In Clinical Supervision: Implications For Coaching Menthal Health Practitioners, Trevor P. Crowe, Lindsay G. Oades, Frank P. Deane, Joseph Ciarrochi, Virginia C. Willliams

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Are We Consuming Enough Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids For Optimal Health?, B J. Meyer Jan 2011

Are We Consuming Enough Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids For Optimal Health?, B J. Meyer

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The health benefits attributed to the consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3PUFA) are enormous but are we consuming enough for optimal health? Cardiovascular disease rates are much lower in countries like Japan compared with the Western world. Western countries’ LC n-3 PUFA intakes are up to 5 fold lower than Japanese intakes. Various professional bodies and government organisations recommend 500mg LCn-3PUFA per day. The actual reported intake of LC n-3 PUFA from Australia and various other countries are compared to these recommended intakes. Not surprisingly, the actual intakes of LCn-3PUFA in Western countries fall short of ...


Australian Mental Health Consumers' Contributions To The Evaluation And Improvement Of Recoveryoriented Service Provision, Sarah L. Marshall, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor P. Crowe Jan 2010

Australian Mental Health Consumers' Contributions To The Evaluation And Improvement Of Recoveryoriented Service Provision, Sarah L. Marshall, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor P. Crowe

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


A Psychometric Analysis Of The Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire, Brenda Happell, Lorna Moxham, Chris Platania-Phung Jan 2010

A Psychometric Analysis Of The Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire, Brenda Happell, Lorna Moxham, Chris Platania-Phung

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

If consumer participation is to be translated from rhetoric into reality, the attitudes of health professionals need to be addressed. Educational strategies can play an important role, but measures of attitudes are needed to determine the effectiveness of these strategies. This paper seeks to establish the Mental Health Consumer Participation Questionnaire (MHCPQ) on psychometric grounds, and explore attitude levels. Overall, the 150 nursing students who participated saw consumer participation in a favourable light, although this varied with the nature and extent of involvement. Psychometric properties, attitude structure, and attitude differences are reported. The MHCPQ displays good face validity and can ...


Paving Pathways: Shaping The Public Health Workforce Through Tertiary Education, Catherine M. Bennett, Kathleen Lilley, Heather Yeatman, Elizabeth Parker, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Liz Hanna, Priscilla Robinson Jan 2010

Paving Pathways: Shaping The Public Health Workforce Through Tertiary Education, Catherine M. Bennett, Kathleen Lilley, Heather Yeatman, Elizabeth Parker, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Liz Hanna, Priscilla Robinson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Public health educational pathways in Australia have traditionally been the province of Universities, with the Master of Public Health (MPH) recognised as the flagship professional entry program. Public health education also occurs within the fellowship training of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine, but this remains confined to medical graduates within Australia. In recent years, however, we have seen a proliferation of undergraduate degrees as well as an increasing public health presence in the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Following the 2007 Australian Federal election, the new Labour government brought with it a refreshing commitment to a more inclusive ...


Hope And Improvements In Mental Health Service Providers' Recovery Attitudes Following Training, Janaka D. Salgado, Frank P. Deane, Trevor P. Crowe, Lindsay G. Oades Jan 2010

Hope And Improvements In Mental Health Service Providers' Recovery Attitudes Following Training, Janaka D. Salgado, Frank P. Deane, Trevor P. Crowe, Lindsay G. Oades

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

No abstract provided.


Qigong As A Mindful Exercise Intervention For People Living With Mental Ill Health, Chris Lloyd, H. Tsang, Frank P. Deane Jan 2009

Qigong As A Mindful Exercise Intervention For People Living With Mental Ill Health, Chris Lloyd, H. Tsang, Frank P. Deane

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Background: Individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight or obese than the general population, and the associated health problems put them at a higher risk of death. Exercise is therefore an important non-pharmacological intervention that mental health workers can assist clients to engage in, and mindful exercise approaches may be particularly well-suited to this population. Content: This article describes the concept of qigong as a mindful exercise and looks at preliminary evidence suggesting that mindful exercise is of physical and emotional benefit to people with mental ill health. The authors propose an easy, standardized exercise protocol which clinicians ...


Children's Health And Rf Emf Exposure, Peter Wiedemann, Holger Schutz, Franziska Borner, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Rodney J. Croft, Alexander Lerchl, Luc Martens, Georg Neubauer, Sabine Regel, Michael Repacholi Jan 2009

Children's Health And Rf Emf Exposure, Peter Wiedemann, Holger Schutz, Franziska Borner, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Rodney J. Croft, Alexander Lerchl, Luc Martens, Georg Neubauer, Sabine Regel, Michael Repacholi

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The present report documents a dialogue between scientists reviewing the currently available scientific evidence with respect to the effects of RF EMF exposure on children. The focus was directed towards a transparent and comprehensible characterization of the findings and conclusions for the evaluation of the relationship between mobile phone communication and children’s health. The now available report, based on the scientific opinions of the experts as well as on a series of workshops, aims to help the public and policy makers to better understand the current state of the scientific evidence as well as implications for the risk evaluation ...


The Effects Of Reason And Event Saliency On Health-Related Decisions, Lisa Woods, Amy Y. Chan Jan 2009

The Effects Of Reason And Event Saliency On Health-Related Decisions, Lisa Woods, Amy Y. Chan

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The current study examined how event saliency and reason for action influence the amount of regret anticipated about a foregone option, and on people‟s anticipated choice of behavior when they are confronted with a choice between two equally aversive options. The participants were 120 undergraduate psychology students. Participants who were prompted to imagine choosing to fulfill an internal desire instead of an internal obligation anticipated significantly more regret than those who were prompted to make the opposite choice. No significant differences in the amount of regret anticipated was found between participants who had to choose between two external obligations ...


Mental Health Education For Nurses In General Practice, Kathryn Godwin Jan 2009

Mental Health Education For Nurses In General Practice, Kathryn Godwin

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Over the last seven years practice nurse numbers have grown across Australia to over 7,824 (est.) in 2007, with at least 60% of general practices now employing a practice nurse (APNA 2008). Nurses hav~ helped many GPs with overwhelming workloads which include dealing with complex mental health complaints, such as depression and anxiety related to chronic disease conditions. Practice nurses are a key component in primary health care with one nurse to every 2.3 GPs in 2007 (APNA 2008


Soft Drinks, Weight Status And Health: Health Professional Update, Anna Rangan, Debra Hector, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Victoria M. Flood, Tim Gill Jan 2009

Soft Drinks, Weight Status And Health: Health Professional Update, Anna Rangan, Debra Hector, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Victoria M. Flood, Tim Gill

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

High consumption of soft drinks and other sugary drinks are associated with a number of health problems, including overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and dental caries. In Australia, soft drinks are the most commonly consumed sugary beverage and have been singled out for specific attention as a target of obesity prevention programs. Soft drinks are well-known, readily available and marketed extensively, especially to adolescents. They have no nutritional value other than sugar and fluid, and are identified in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating as an ‘extra’ food – one that should be consumed only occasionally and in small ...


Industry Partnerships For Health Nonprofits And Disease Awareness Advertising, Danika Hall, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson Jan 2009

Industry Partnerships For Health Nonprofits And Disease Awareness Advertising, Danika Hall, Sandra C. Jones, Donald C. Iverson

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Marketing partnerships between non-profit organisations (NPOs) and industry generally bring favourable results for both parties (Brønn and Vrioni 2001; Varadarajan and Menon 1988). However, there is some scepticism about corporate exploitation of such arrangements and growing concern in Australia and elsewhere about partnerships between the pharmaceutical industry and NPOs (Angell 2006; Moynihan and Cassels 2005) and the co-sponsorship of Disease Awareness Advertising (DAA). This paper reports the findings from a study of how Australian women respond to DAA with differing sponsors including their ability to identify, and their attitude toward, the sponsor. The results are of importance for health NPOs ...


Soft Drinks, Weight Status And Health: A Review, Debra Hector, Anna Rangan, Tim Gill, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Victoria M. Flood Jan 2009

Soft Drinks, Weight Status And Health: A Review, Debra Hector, Anna Rangan, Tim Gill, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Victoria M. Flood

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The prevention of overweight and obesity, particularly among children, is a public health priority. A range of initiatives to address this problem have already been developed and implemented in NSW. However, a broader range of additional strategies are needed to effectively address this complex issue. The high consumption of soft drinks, i.e. sugarsweetened carbonated beverages, and other sugary drinks is one of an array of dietary behaviours which has been identified by a number of policy documents as an important, specific behaviour to address in the prevention and management of obesity.


A Review Of Engagement Of Indigenous Australians Within Mental Health And Substance Abuse Services., Stacey Berry, Trevor P. Crowe Jan 2009

A Review Of Engagement Of Indigenous Australians Within Mental Health And Substance Abuse Services., Stacey Berry, Trevor P. Crowe

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Substance misuse is a significant issue in Australia, and a large proportion of individuals with substance misuse disorders have co-existing mental health disorders. There is evidence that Indigenous Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to experience the adverse effects of alcohol consumption, and that mental health disorders are more prevalent in Indigenous communities than non-Indigenous communities. Indigenous Australians currently do not access mental health and substance abuse services at a level which is consistent with their level of need, and this is largely due to inconsistent or insufficient culturally respectful mental health services. This paper provides a review of ...


Mental Health Consumers' Perceptions Of Receiving Recovery-Focused Services, Sarah Marshall, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor P. Crowe Jan 2009

Mental Health Consumers' Perceptions Of Receiving Recovery-Focused Services, Sarah Marshall, Lindsay G. Oades, Trevor P. Crowe

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

Method: A self-report questionnaire was developed drawing on key aspects of the Collaborative Recovery Model (CRM) (responsibility, collaboration, autonomy, motivation, needs, goals, homework). Ninety-two adult consumers from metropolitan, regional and rural non-government organizations and public mental health services in eastern Australian states completed the questionnaire. Results: Consumers using services provided by CRM trained workers identified significant changes to service delivery in relation to frequency with which they were encouraged to take responsibility for their recovery, degree to which they collaborated with staff and the extent to which they were encouraged to complete homework activities to assist them to achieve their ...


Benchmarking Across Sectors: Comparisons Of Residential Dual Diagnosis And Mental Health Programs, Frank P. Deane, Peter Kelly, Talia Gonda, Ganapathi Murugesan, Robyn Jeffrey Jan 2009

Benchmarking Across Sectors: Comparisons Of Residential Dual Diagnosis And Mental Health Programs, Frank P. Deane, Peter Kelly, Talia Gonda, Ganapathi Murugesan, Robyn Jeffrey

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

[extract] A Question to Ponder: How does your service compare to other similar services in the industry? How would knowing this help your organisation?


Food, Health And Nutrition: Where Does Chicken Fit?, Karen E. Charlton, Yasmine Probst, Linda C. Tapsell, Patrick J. Blackall Jan 2008

Food, Health And Nutrition: Where Does Chicken Fit?, Karen E. Charlton, Yasmine Probst, Linda C. Tapsell, Patrick J. Blackall

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

The link between diet and health is important, given the prevalence of diet related disease, including obesity, in the Australian population. Consumers need to be able to discriminate between foods based on the nutritional contribution of each to a healthy diet. They also need to be able to discriminate between foods in a broader context, considering issues such as food safety, how the food is produced and the environmental consequences of its production. This review outlines the position of chicken in the Australian diet from a health, consumer and environmental perspective. Chicken can contribute to a healthy eating pattern. It ...


Inclusion And Exclusion In Women's Access To Health And Medicine, Susan M. Dodds Jan 2008

Inclusion And Exclusion In Women's Access To Health And Medicine, Susan M. Dodds

Faculty of Arts - Papers (Archive)

Women's access to health and medicine in developed countries has been characterized by a range of inconsistent inclusions and exclusions. Health policy has been asymmetrically interested in women's reproductive capacities and has sought to regulate, control, and manage aspects of women's reproductive decision making in a manner unwitnessed in relation to men's reproductive health and reproductive decision making. In other areas, research that addresses health concerns that affect both men and women sometimes is designed so as not to yield data relating to the ways in which women's physiology and gendered location may affect their ...


Constructing A Research Based Pre-Care Model To Improve Mental Health Interventions For Young People, Lindsey Harrison, Sue Webster Jan 2008

Constructing A Research Based Pre-Care Model To Improve Mental Health Interventions For Young People, Lindsey Harrison, Sue Webster

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

ObjectiveThis study had two aims. Firstly, to explore how young people experienced the onset of mental health problems and to investigate their initial interactions with the health system; and secondly, to use thesefindings to construct a pre-care model that can be used by nurses and other health care professionals todesign appropriate interventions.DesignGrounded theory method was used to develop a theory of young peoples experience of the pathway to mental health care. Data were obtained through in-depth semi-structured interviews.SettingParticipants were recruited through two community health centres in a Sydney metropolitan area healthservice.SubjectsThe purposive sample consisted of eight males ...


Health Claims And Food Advertising: Comparison Of Marketing And Nutrition Experts' Ratings Of Magazine Advertisements, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Williams, Linda C. Tapsell, Kelly L. Andrews Jan 2008

Health Claims And Food Advertising: Comparison Of Marketing And Nutrition Experts' Ratings Of Magazine Advertisements, Sandra C. Jones, Peter Williams, Linda C. Tapsell, Kelly L. Andrews

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

To determine the nature and differences in expert opinion from the fields of nutrition and marketing on the use of health claims in the 30 most frequently appearing Australian magazine food advertisements, a survey was conducted with 28 nutritionists and 21 marketing experts in Australia and New Zealand. The experts assessed the advertisements with respect to the accuracy of the nutrition claims, the tactics and intentions of the advertising strategy and the accessibility of the nutrition information to lay consumers. Of 28 advertisements where a claim was identified, for only one did more than 90% believe the claim to be ...


The Development And Use Of Mental Health Triage Scales In Australia, Marc Broadbent, Lorna Moxham, Trudy Dwyer Jan 2007

The Development And Use Of Mental Health Triage Scales In Australia, Marc Broadbent, Lorna Moxham, Trudy Dwyer

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

In Australian emergency departments, the triage of people with physical illness and injury is well developed and supported by the Australasian Triage Scale. The Australasian Triage Scale contains brief descriptors of mental illness and it is unknown if these provide the same reliability in triage decision-making for emergency triage nurses assessing people with a mental illness. Specialist mental health triage scales have been developed to cater for this deficit and to aid emergency staff who have lacked training in the assessment and management of people with a mental illness. A review of the development of mental health triage scales and ...


A Taxonomy For Homework Used By Mental Health Case Managers When Working With Individuals Diagnosed With Severe Mental Illness, Peter Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Robert King, Nikolaos Kazantzis, Trevor P. Crowe Jan 2007

A Taxonomy For Homework Used By Mental Health Case Managers When Working With Individuals Diagnosed With Severe Mental Illness, Peter Kelly, Frank P. Deane, Robert King, Nikolaos Kazantzis, Trevor P. Crowe

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences - Papers (Archive)

A survey was completed by 122 case managers describing the types of homework assignments commonly used with individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Homework types were categorized using a 12-item homework description taxonomy and in relation to the 22 domains of the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN). Case managers predominately reported using behaviourally based homework tasks such as scheduling activities and the development of personal hygiene skills. Homework focused on CAN areas of need in relation to Company, Psychological Distress, Psychotic Symptoms and Daytime Activities. The applications of the taxonomy for both researchers and case managers are discussed.