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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Why Animal Ethics Committees Don't Work, Denise Russell Dec 2011

Why Animal Ethics Committees Don't Work, Denise Russell

Between the Species

Abstract

Animal ethics committees have been set up in many countries as a way to scrutinize animal experimentation and to assure the public that if animals are used in research then it is for a worthwhile cause and suffering is kept to a minimum. The ideals of Refinement, Reduction and Replacement are commonly upheld. However while refinement and reduction receive much attention in animal ethics committees the replacement of animals is much more difficult to incorporate into the committees’ deliberations. At least in Australia there are certain structural reasons for this but it is likely that most of the reasons ...


Telling It Like It Is: A Proposal To Improve Transparency In Biomedical Research, John Hadley Dec 2011

Telling It Like It Is: A Proposal To Improve Transparency In Biomedical Research, John Hadley

Between the Species

Recent proposals to improve public communication about animal-based biomedical research have been narrowly focused on reforming biomedical journal submission guidelines. My suggestion for communication reform is broader in scope reaching beyond the research community to healthcare communicators and ultimately the general public. The suggestion is for researchers to provide journalists and public relations practitioners with concise summaries of their ‘animal use data’. Animal use data is collected by researchers and intended for the public record but is rarely, if ever, given significant media exposure. By providing healthcare communicators with specific details about their animal use, researchers can play a role ...


Animals-As-Patients: Improving The Practice Of Animal Experimentation, Jane Johnson, Christopher Degeling Dec 2011

Animals-As-Patients: Improving The Practice Of Animal Experimentation, Jane Johnson, Christopher Degeling

Between the Species

In this paper we propose a new way of conceptualizing animals in experimentation – the animal-as-patient. Construing and treating animals as patients offers a way of successfully addressing some of the entrenched epistemological and ethical problems within a practice of animal experimentation directed to human clinical benefit. This approach is grounded in an epistemological insight and builds on work with so-called ‘pet models’. It relies upon the occurrence and characterization of analogous human and nonhuman animal diseases, where, if certain criteria of homology and mechanism are met, the animal simultaneously becomes a patient and a spontaneous model of the human disease.


Utilitarianism And Replaceability Or Are Animals Expendable?, Stefan Sencerz Sep 2011

Utilitarianism And Replaceability Or Are Animals Expendable?, Stefan Sencerz

Between the Species

In her very interesting paper, “Peter Singer on Expendability,” L. A. Kemmerer re-examines Peter Singer’s utilitarian argument implying that some being are replaceable and the implications of this argument for the issue of treating animals. I attempt to defend Singer, and more generally utilitarianism (including the principle of replaceability), against these objections. I argue that, given a utilitarian outlook, some animals are indeed replaceable. But I also argue that few animals are replaceable in practice.


Negotiating The Anthropological Limit. Derrida, Stiegler, And The Question Of The Animal, Nathan Van Camp Sep 2011

Negotiating The Anthropological Limit. Derrida, Stiegler, And The Question Of The Animal, Nathan Van Camp

Between the Species

Although much has been written about the so-called political, ethical and religious turns in the thinking of Jacques Derrida, few have noticed that his late writings were marked by what we could tentatively call a “zoological turn.” This is surprising given that in The Animal That Therefore I Am Derrida clearly stated that the question as to what distinguishes the human from the animal has for him always been the most important question of philosophy. This essay will attempt to offer a preliminary exploration of this still largely uncharted aspect of Derrida’s thought. Starting from a brief overview of ...


All Too Human: "Animal Wisdom" In Nietzsche's Account Of The Good Life, Jonathan D. Singer Aug 2011

All Too Human: "Animal Wisdom" In Nietzsche's Account Of The Good Life, Jonathan D. Singer

Between the Species

In this paper I argue that a certain understanding of “animality” – or that a certain problematization of the traditional human-animal hierarchy and divide – is central to Nietzsche’s account of the good life. Nietzsche’s philosophical project is primarily directed against those “metaphysical oppositions of values” that traditionally structure how we think, feel and live, and in this paper I submit that, for Nietzsche, the classical opposition between the human and the animal is the most basic and the most pernicious, for it undergirds the oppositional hierarchy between rationality and irrationality that has turned human life against itself. I draw ...


Review Of Philosophy & Animal Life, Leif A. Devaney Aug 2011

Review Of Philosophy & Animal Life, Leif A. Devaney

Between the Species

No abstract provided.


Articulating Animals: Animals And Implicit Inferences In Brandom’S Work, Joel D. Musser Mar 2011

Articulating Animals: Animals And Implicit Inferences In Brandom’S Work, Joel D. Musser

Between the Species

Brandom denies animals implicit reasoning by emphasizing their inability to make inferences explicit, and in so doing, denigrates animals by likening their behavior to that of machines and artifacts. With disturbing regularity and ease, Brandom equates pigeons and parrots to machines and thermostats in their inability to express implicit/explicit inferences: neither the pigeon nor the machine can “provid[e] reasons for making other moves in the language game.”

I contest, however, that animals are paradigmatically more than any similarity or analogy to mechanical processing, just as humans are paradigmatically more than any reductive analogy to animals. The human/animal ...


Contractualism And The Moral Status Of Animals, Jennifer Swanson Mar 2011

Contractualism And The Moral Status Of Animals, Jennifer Swanson

Between the Species

While contractualism seems to solve some of the more pressing concerns of other moral theories, it does not conclusively address the moral status of non-human animals. Peter Carruthers claims that contractualism excludes animals from having full moral status. I argue that Carruthers’ arguments are fatally flawed due to his reliance on contradictory claims, unlikely assumptions, and flagrant violations of the contractualist method. However, Carruthers also claims that we can treat animals wrongly and that it deserves moral criticism. This claim is based in indirect moral significance. However, this position makes it impossible for Carruthers to avoid endorsing two extremely counter-intuitive ...


The Bee-Haviour Of Scientists: An Analogy Of Science From The World Of Bees, Ben Trubody Mar 2011

The Bee-Haviour Of Scientists: An Analogy Of Science From The World Of Bees, Ben Trubody

Between the Species

I am going to compare the strategies and communication bees use in order to locate and retrieve nectar to the world of science and the scientist. The analogy is intentionally anthropomorphic but I wish to argue that if successful bees made assumptions they would be similar to those of the scientist: flowers can be regarded as facts, nectar as knowledge, honey as technology and their ‘waggle-dance’ as communication of ideas. I would like to say that this is to be used as an analogy and should not be taken to be a statement of the scientific method as an emergent ...