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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Other Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Young Adult Bar Patrons, Amanda Fallin-Bennett, Nadra E. Lisha, Pamela M. Ling Sep 2017

Other Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Young Adult Bar Patrons, Amanda Fallin-Bennett, Nadra E. Lisha, Pamela M. Ling

Nursing Faculty Publications

Introduction—Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals smoke at rates 1.5–2 times higher than the general population, but less is known about LGB consumption of other tobacco products (OTPs) and gender differences. OTP use among young adult LGB bar patrons and the relationship among past quit attempts, intention to quit, and binge drinking with OTP use was examined.

Methods—A cross-sectional survey of young adults (aged 18–26) in bars/nightclubs in seven U.S. cities between 2012 and 2014 (N=8,010; 1,101 LGB participants) was analyzed in 2016. Logistic regressions examined current use of five ...


Challenges And Considerations Related To Studying Dementia In Blacks/African Americans, Eseosa T. Ighodaro, Peter T. Nelson, Walter A. Kukull, Frederick A. Schmitt, Erin L. Abner, Allison M. Caban-Holt, Shoshana H. Bardach, Derrick C. Hord, Crystal M. Glover, Gregory A. Jicha, Linda J. Van Eldik, Alexander X. Byrd, Anita Fernander Aug 2017

Challenges And Considerations Related To Studying Dementia In Blacks/African Americans, Eseosa T. Ighodaro, Peter T. Nelson, Walter A. Kukull, Frederick A. Schmitt, Erin L. Abner, Allison M. Caban-Holt, Shoshana H. Bardach, Derrick C. Hord, Crystal M. Glover, Gregory A. Jicha, Linda J. Van Eldik, Alexander X. Byrd, Anita Fernander

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Blacks/African Americans have been reported to be ~2–4 times more likely to develop clinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) compared to Whites. Unfortunately, study design challenges (e.g., recruitment bias), racism, mistrust of healthcare providers and biomedical researchers, confounders related to socioeconomic status, and other sources of bias are often ignored when interpreting differences in human subjects categorized by race. Failure to account for these factors can lead to misinterpretation of results, reification of race as biology, discrimination, and missed or delayed diagnoses. Here we provide a selected historical background, discuss challenges, present opportunities, and suggest considerations for studying ...


Is Sex With Older Male Partners Associated With Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black Msm?, Nicholas Chamberlain, Leandro A. Mena, Angelica Geter, Richard A. Crosby Aug 2017

Is Sex With Older Male Partners Associated With Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black Msm?, Nicholas Chamberlain, Leandro A. Mena, Angelica Geter, Richard A. Crosby

Health, Behavior & Society Faculty Publications

Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a “bottom” (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV− individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV− individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV ...


Substance Use Disorders, Violence, Mental Health, And Hiv: Differentiating A Syndemic Factor By Gender And Sexuality, Kiyomi Tsuyuki, Eileen V. Pitpitan, Maria A. Levi-Minzi, Lianne A. Urada, Steven P. Kurtz, Jamila K. Stockman, Hilary L. Surratt Aug 2017

Substance Use Disorders, Violence, Mental Health, And Hiv: Differentiating A Syndemic Factor By Gender And Sexuality, Kiyomi Tsuyuki, Eileen V. Pitpitan, Maria A. Levi-Minzi, Lianne A. Urada, Steven P. Kurtz, Jamila K. Stockman, Hilary L. Surratt

Center for Health Services Research Faculty Publications

This paper measures syndemic substance use disorder, violence, and mental health and compares the syndemic among HIV-infected heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were from a sample of high needs substance-using, HIV-infected people in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 481). We used confirmatory factor analysis to measure a syndemic latent variable and applied measurement invariance models to identify group differences in the data structure of syndemic co-morbidities among heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and MSM. We found that variables used to measure the syndemic fit each sub-group, supporting that substance use disorder ...


Pain Perception In Latino Vs. Caucasian And Male Vs. Female Patients: Is There Really A Difference?, Molly Aufiero, Holly Stankewicz, Shaila Quazi, Jeanne Jacoby, Jill Stoltzfus Jun 2017

Pain Perception In Latino Vs. Caucasian And Male Vs. Female Patients: Is There Really A Difference?, Molly Aufiero, Holly Stankewicz, Shaila Quazi, Jeanne Jacoby, Jill Stoltzfus

Aria Health Papers

INTRODUCTION: Pain is a common emergency department (ED) complaint. It is important to understand the differences in pain perception among different ethnic and demographic populations.

METHODS: We applied a standardized painful stimulus to Caucasian and Latino adult patients to determine whether the level of pain reported differed depending on ethnicity (N=100; 50 Caucasian [C], 50 Latino [L] patients) and gender (N=100; 59 female, 41 male). Patients had an initial pain score of 0 or 1. A blood pressure cuff was inflated 20 mm HG above the patient's systolic blood pressure and held for three minutes. Pain scores ...


Mental Health Treatment Seeking Patterns And Preferences Of Appalachian Women With Depression, Claire Snell-Rood, Emily Hauenstein, Carl G. Leukefeld, Frances Feltner, Amber Marcum, Nancy E. Schoenberg Jan 2017

Mental Health Treatment Seeking Patterns And Preferences Of Appalachian Women With Depression, Claire Snell-Rood, Emily Hauenstein, Carl G. Leukefeld, Frances Feltner, Amber Marcum, Nancy E. Schoenberg

Behavioral Science Faculty Publications

This qualitative study explored social-cultural factors that shape treatment seeking behaviors among depressed rural, low-income women in Appalachia—a region with high rates of depression and a shortage of mental health services. Recent research shows that increasingly rural women are receiving some form of treatment and identifying their symptoms as depression. Using purposive sampling, investigators recruited 28 depressed low-income women living in Appalachian Kentucky and conducted semistructured interviews on participants’ perceptions of depression and treatment seeking. Even in this sample of women with diverse treatment behaviors (half reported current treatment), participants expressed ambivalence about treatment and its potential to promote ...


Correlates Of Sexual-Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Msm: Implications For Clinic-Based Counseling Programs, Richard A. Crosby, Leandro Mena, Janelle M. Ricks Nov 2016

Correlates Of Sexual-Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Msm: Implications For Clinic-Based Counseling Programs, Richard A. Crosby, Leandro Mena, Janelle M. Ricks

Health, Behavior & Society Faculty Publications

This study applied an 8-item index of recent sexual-risk behaviors to young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and evaluated the distribution for normality. The distribution was tested for associations with possible antecedents of sexual risk. YBMSM (N = 600), aged 16–29 years, were recruited from a sexually transmitted infection clinic, located in the southern US. Men completed an extensive audio computer-assisted self-interview. Thirteen possible antecedents of sexual risk, as assessed by the index, were selected for analyses. The 8-item index formed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.77 (SD = 1.77). In adjusted analyses, not ...


Subjective Report Of Side Effects Of Prescribed And Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use In Young Adults, Tess E. Smith, Michelle M. Martel, Alan D. Desantis Nov 2016

Subjective Report Of Side Effects Of Prescribed And Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use In Young Adults, Tess E. Smith, Michelle M. Martel, Alan D. Desantis

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. Objectives: The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. Methods: 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results: Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects ...


Considering Decision-Making And Sexuality In Menstrual Suppression Of Teens And Young Adults With Intellectual Disabilities., Kruti Acharya, John D. Lantos Apr 2016

Considering Decision-Making And Sexuality In Menstrual Suppression Of Teens And Young Adults With Intellectual Disabilities., Kruti Acharya, John D. Lantos

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

No abstract provided.


The Creation Of A Model Pediatric Ward For African American Children In 1920s Kansas City., Jane F. Knapp, Robert Schremmer Dec 2015

The Creation Of A Model Pediatric Ward For African American Children In 1920s Kansas City., Jane F. Knapp, Robert Schremmer

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

No abstract provided.


Francis Daniels Moore: One Of The Brightest Minds In The Surgical Field., Sara L. Low, Bs, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Ashesh P. Shah, Md Feb 2015

Francis Daniels Moore: One Of The Brightest Minds In The Surgical Field., Sara L. Low, Bs, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Ashesh P. Shah, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

Francis Daniels Moore was a pioneer ahead of his time who made numerous landmark contributions to the field of surgery, including the understanding of metabolic physiology during surgery, liver and kidney transplant, and the famous Study on Surgical Services of the United States (SOSSUS) report of 1975 that served for decades as a guideline for development of surgical residencies. He was the epitome of what a physician should be, a compassionate and dedicated surgeon, innovative scientist, and a medical professional dedicated to quality medical education across all specialties.


Vivien Thomas: Master Craftsman, Gifted Teacher, And Unsung Hero., Alisha Joyner, B.S., Charles J. Yeo, Md, Pinckney J. Maxwell, Iv, Md Feb 2015

Vivien Thomas: Master Craftsman, Gifted Teacher, And Unsung Hero., Alisha Joyner, B.S., Charles J. Yeo, Md, Pinckney J. Maxwell, Iv, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

The field of pediatric cardiovascular surgery gained international recognition in 1944 with the first successful correction of a tetralogy of Fallot congenital anomaly in a 15-month-old patient. Dr. Helen Taussig (1898 to 1986), a pediatrician at Johns Hopkins Hospital, recognized the need for the procedure. Dr. Alfred Blalock (1899 to 1964), Chief of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, is credited with performing the surgery. However, there is an unsung hero who for many years did not receive a single mention in the medical literature. Vivien Thomas (1910 to 1985) was Dr. Blalock’s research assistant who is said to have ...


Dr. Mary Edwards Walker: Years Ahead Of Her Time., Dre M. Irizarry, Bs, Nicole Salomone, As, Karen A. Chojnacki, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Linda J. Bogar, Md Jan 2015

Dr. Mary Edwards Walker: Years Ahead Of Her Time., Dre M. Irizarry, Bs, Nicole Salomone, As, Karen A. Chojnacki, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Linda J. Bogar, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

Women phsycians in the United States were virtually nonexistent in the early to mid-1800s. Traditional medical schools still did not accept women, and few secretarian or eclectic medical schools were beginning to open their doors to female students. In 1849 at Geneva College, Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to achieve a medical degree in the United States.1 At the time of the Civil War, the few women who had managed to obtain medical degrees mainly served as nurses in the war, because society was not yet ready to accept the female physician.2 Dr. Mary Edwards Walker would ...


Jewish Dermatologists In Nazi Germany., Walter H.C. Burgdorf, Lawrence Charles Parish Nov 2014

Jewish Dermatologists In Nazi Germany., Walter H.C. Burgdorf, Lawrence Charles Parish

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

With the development of medical specialties beginning in the 1860’s, physicians could devote their time to the study of specific organ systems or surgical approaches. Although Jews had been given full rights in the new Germany by 1871, prejudice and other restrictions often precluded hospital and university appointments. Major specialities like internal medicine and surgery were almost closed to Jews, as were obstetrics and gynecology. Dermatology with its heavy emphasis on sexually transmitted diseases evolved into a suitable domain for Jewish physicians almost by default. Even those Jews who converted to Christianity were not spared from discrimination. Paul Gerson ...


Barriers And Facilitators For Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices In The Latino Community: Perspectives From Community Leaders, Ana Natale-Pereira, Jonnie Marks, Marielos Vega, Dawne Mouzon, Shawna Hudson, Debbie Salas-Lopez Sep 2014

Barriers And Facilitators For Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices In The Latino Community: Perspectives From Community Leaders, Ana Natale-Pereira, Jonnie Marks, Marielos Vega, Dawne Mouzon, Shawna Hudson, Debbie Salas-Lopez

Debbie Salas-Lopez MD, MPH

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among Latinos. While Latinos represent one of the fastest-growing ethnic groups in the United States, their participation in cancer prevention and treatment trials is low. METHODS: Thirty-six Latino community leaders participated in five focus groups that examined factors affecting CRC screening practices among Latinos. RESULTS: The top four barriers identified were low knowledge and awareness of CRC, language barriers, lack of insurance, and undocumented legal status. Additional barriers included seeking health care only when sick, fatalism, fear, denial ...


Perspectives On Cancer Screening Among Latino Community Members And Internal Medicine Residents, Debbie Salas-Lopez, Dawne Mouzon, Jonnie Marks, Neil Kothari, Ana Natale-Pereira Sep 2014

Perspectives On Cancer Screening Among Latino Community Members And Internal Medicine Residents, Debbie Salas-Lopez, Dawne Mouzon, Jonnie Marks, Neil Kothari, Ana Natale-Pereira

Debbie Salas-Lopez MD, MPH

BACKGROUND: Latinos have lower rates of cancer screening, partially because of cultural beliefs that conflict with those of health care professionals. Moreover, established programs for training physicians in cultural competency often fail to incorporate input from the community.

METHODS: To explore beliefs about cancer and cancer screening among Latino community members and internal medicine residents. Three focus groups of Latino community members (n = 31) and one focus group of internal medicine residents (n = 9) were conducted to compare ideas regarding cancer and cancer screening.

RESULTS: We identified clear disconnects between residents and Latino community members regarding their understandings of cancer ...


Cultural Competency In New Jersey: Evolution From Planning To Law, Debbie Salas-Lopez, Linda Holmes, Dawne Mouzon, Maria Soto-Greene Sep 2014

Cultural Competency In New Jersey: Evolution From Planning To Law, Debbie Salas-Lopez, Linda Holmes, Dawne Mouzon, Maria Soto-Greene

Debbie Salas-Lopez MD, MPH

No abstract provided.


Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner Sep 2014

Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animals (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Erich Yahner, MSLIS

No abstract provided.


Development Of Antigen-Specific Memory Cd8+ T Cells Following Live-Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccination, Heidi Smith, Thomas Monath, Pamela Pazoles, Alan Rothman, Diane Casey, Masanori Terajima, Francis Ennis, Farshad Guirakhoo, Sharone Green Aug 2014

Development Of Antigen-Specific Memory Cd8+ T Cells Following Live-Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccination, Heidi Smith, Thomas Monath, Pamela Pazoles, Alan Rothman, Diane Casey, Masanori Terajima, Francis Ennis, Farshad Guirakhoo, Sharone Green

Alan Rothman

ChimeriVax-WN02 is a novel live-attenuated West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine containing modified WNV premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) sequences inserted into the yellow fever 17D vaccine genome. We investigated the induction and evolution of CD8(+) T cell responses to a WNV envelope epitope, which is a dominant target in naturally infected HLA-A*02-positive individuals. WNV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected by HLA tetramer staining in 22 of 23 donors tested, with peak frequencies occurring between days 14 and 28. WNV epitope-specific T cells evolved from an effector phenotype to a long-lived memory phenotype. In the majority of donors, CD8 ...


Intracellular Cytokine Production By Dengue Virus-Specific T Cells Correlates With Subclinical Secondary Infection, Steven Hatch, Timothy Endy, Stephen Thomas, Anuja Mathew, James Potts, Pamela Pazoles, Daniel Libraty, Robert Gibbons, Alan Rothman Aug 2014

Intracellular Cytokine Production By Dengue Virus-Specific T Cells Correlates With Subclinical Secondary Infection, Steven Hatch, Timothy Endy, Stephen Thomas, Anuja Mathew, James Potts, Pamela Pazoles, Daniel Libraty, Robert Gibbons, Alan Rothman

Alan Rothman

The pathophysiology of dengue virus infection remains poorly understood, although secondary infection is strongly associated with more severe disease. In the present study, we performed a nested, case-control study comparing the responses of pre-illness peripheral blood mononuclear cells between children who would subsequently develop either subclinical or symptomatic secondary infection 6-11 months after the baseline blood samples were obtained and frozen. We analyzed intracellular cytokine production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in response to stimulation with dengue antigen. We found higher frequencies of dengue virus-specific TNFalpha, IFNgamma-, and IL-2-producing T cells among schoolchildren who subsequently developed subclinical infection, compared with ...


Determinants Of Inapparent And Symptomatic Dengue Infection In A Prospective Study Of Primary School Children In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Timothy Endy, Kathryn Anderson, Ananda Nisalak, In-Kyu Yoon, Sharone Green, Alan Rothman, Stephen Thomas, Richard Jarman, Daniel Libraty, Robert Gibbons Aug 2014

Determinants Of Inapparent And Symptomatic Dengue Infection In A Prospective Study Of Primary School Children In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Timothy Endy, Kathryn Anderson, Ananda Nisalak, In-Kyu Yoon, Sharone Green, Alan Rothman, Stephen Thomas, Richard Jarman, Daniel Libraty, Robert Gibbons

Alan Rothman

BACKGROUND: Dengue viruses are a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Inapparent dengue is an important component of the overall burden of dengue infection. It provides a source of infection for mosquito transmission during the course of an epidemic, yet by definition is undetected by health care providers. Previous studies of inapparent or subclinical infection have reported varying ratios of symptomatic to inapparent dengue infection.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective study of school children in Northern Thailand, we describe the spatial and temporal variation of the symptomatic to inapparent (S:I) dengue illness ...


B-Cell Responses During Primary And Secondary Dengue Virus Infections In Humans, Anuja Mathew, Kim West, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Robert Gibbons, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Daniel Libraty, Smita Jaiswal, Alan Rothman Aug 2014

B-Cell Responses During Primary And Secondary Dengue Virus Infections In Humans, Anuja Mathew, Kim West, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Robert Gibbons, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Daniel Libraty, Smita Jaiswal, Alan Rothman

Alan Rothman

Low-avidity serotype-cross-reactive antibodies are hypothesized to play a key role in triggering severe disease in patients with secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, there is little systematic information about the frequency, avidity, and cross-reactivity of DENV-specific B cells in individuals experiencing primary instead of secondary infection. We compared DENV-specific B-cell responses in a cohort of Thai children with primary or secondary DENV infection. B cells specific for DENV precursor membrane protein, envelope (E) protein, and nonstructural protein 1 were detectable in immune peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the highest frequencies of DENV E-specific B cells detected in patients experiencing primary ...


Extended Interferon-Alpha Therapy Accelerates Telomere Length Loss In Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes, Joel O'Bryan, James Potts, Herbert Bonkovsky, Anuja Mathew, Alan Rothman Aug 2014

Extended Interferon-Alpha Therapy Accelerates Telomere Length Loss In Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes, Joel O'Bryan, James Potts, Herbert Bonkovsky, Anuja Mathew, Alan Rothman

Alan Rothman

BACKGROUND: Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of ...


Francis F. Maury, M.D. (1840 To 1879): An Often Forgotten Pioneer In Early American Surgery., Guillaume S. Chevrollier, B.S., Scott W. Cowan, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, John C. Kairys, Md Jun 2014

Francis F. Maury, M.D. (1840 To 1879): An Often Forgotten Pioneer In Early American Surgery., Guillaume S. Chevrollier, B.S., Scott W. Cowan, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, John C. Kairys, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

Francis F. Maury (Fig. 1) was born on August 9, 1840, in Danville, Kentucky, where he was raised on a farm by his mother and father. His father was an Episcopal clergyman of Huguenot descent, whose forefathers had fled from France to escape religious persecution. After receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree from Center College in the summer of 1860, he entered medical school at the University of Virginia. After one full term, he matriculated to Philadelphia’s Jefferson Medical College and completed his medical education as a private student under the direction of Dr. Samuel D. Gross.1, 2 ...


Ambroise Paré (1510 To 1590): A Surgeon Centuries Ahead Of His Time., James T. Shen, B.S., Michael Weinstein, Md, Alec C. Beekley, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md Jun 2014

Ambroise Paré (1510 To 1590): A Surgeon Centuries Ahead Of His Time., James T. Shen, B.S., Michael Weinstein, Md, Alec C. Beekley, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

In their extensive writings, Hippocrates and Celsus counseled physicians to be knowledgeable in both the medical and surgical management of patient recovery. However, their words fell by the wayside because cutting of the body was forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Furthermore, the contemporaneous Arabic medical teachings emphasized tradition and authority over observation and personal experience. This created an ever-growing rift between the schools of surgical and pharmacologic medicine with both groups denying their involvement in the other domain. Surgeons had been plagued by postoperative complications including infection, malnutrition, and muscular wasting for centuries. Surgeons were forced to re-examine how ...


Development Of Antigen-Specific Memory Cd8+ T Cells Following Live-Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccination, Heidi Smith, Thomas Monath, Pamela Pazoles, Alan Rothman, Diane Casey, Masanori Terajima, Francis Ennis, Farshad Guirakhoo, Sharone Green Jan 2014

Development Of Antigen-Specific Memory Cd8+ T Cells Following Live-Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccination, Heidi Smith, Thomas Monath, Pamela Pazoles, Alan Rothman, Diane Casey, Masanori Terajima, Francis Ennis, Farshad Guirakhoo, Sharone Green

Sharone Green

ChimeriVax-WN02 is a novel live-attenuated West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine containing modified WNV premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) sequences inserted into the yellow fever 17D vaccine genome. We investigated the induction and evolution of CD8(+) T cell responses to a WNV envelope epitope, which is a dominant target in naturally infected HLA-A*02-positive individuals. WNV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells were detected by HLA tetramer staining in 22 of 23 donors tested, with peak frequencies occurring between days 14 and 28. WNV epitope-specific T cells evolved from an effector phenotype to a long-lived memory phenotype. In the majority of donors, CD8 ...


Determinants Of Inapparent And Symptomatic Dengue Infection In A Prospective Study Of Primary School Children In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Timothy P. Endy, Kathryn B. Anderson, Ananda Nisalak, In-Kyu Yoon, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Stephen J. Thomas, Richard G. Jarman, Daniel H. Libraty, Robert V. Gibbons Jan 2014

Determinants Of Inapparent And Symptomatic Dengue Infection In A Prospective Study Of Primary School Children In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Timothy P. Endy, Kathryn B. Anderson, Ananda Nisalak, In-Kyu Yoon, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Stephen J. Thomas, Richard G. Jarman, Daniel H. Libraty, Robert V. Gibbons

Sharone Green

BACKGROUND: Dengue viruses are a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Inapparent dengue is an important component of the overall burden of dengue infection. It provides a source of infection for mosquito transmission during the course of an epidemic, yet by definition is undetected by health care providers. Previous studies of inapparent or subclinical infection have reported varying ratios of symptomatic to inapparent dengue infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective study of school children in Northern Thailand, we describe the spatial and temporal variation of the symptomatic to inapparent (S:I) dengue illness ...


B-Cell Responses During Primary And Secondary Dengue Virus Infections In Humans, Anuja Mathew, Kim West, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Robert Gibbons, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Daniel Libraty, Smita Jaiswal, Alan Rothman Jan 2014

B-Cell Responses During Primary And Secondary Dengue Virus Infections In Humans, Anuja Mathew, Kim West, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Robert Gibbons, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Daniel Libraty, Smita Jaiswal, Alan Rothman

Sharone Green

Low-avidity serotype-cross-reactive antibodies are hypothesized to play a key role in triggering severe disease in patients with secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, there is little systematic information about the frequency, avidity, and cross-reactivity of DENV-specific B cells in individuals experiencing primary instead of secondary infection. We compared DENV-specific B-cell responses in a cohort of Thai children with primary or secondary DENV infection. B cells specific for DENV precursor membrane protein, envelope (E) protein, and nonstructural protein 1 were detectable in immune peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the highest frequencies of DENV E-specific B cells detected in patients experiencing primary ...


Host Genetic Risk Factors For West Nile Virus Infection And Disease Progression, Abigail W. Bigham, Kati J. Buckingham, Sofia Husain, Mary J. Edmond, Kathryn M. Bofferding, Heidi Gildersleeve, Ann Rutherford, Natalia M. Astakhova, Andrey A. Perelygin, Michael P. Busch, Kristy O. Murray, James J. Sejvar, Sharone Green, John Kriesel, Margo A. Brinton, Michael Bamshad Jan 2014

Host Genetic Risk Factors For West Nile Virus Infection And Disease Progression, Abigail W. Bigham, Kati J. Buckingham, Sofia Husain, Mary J. Edmond, Kathryn M. Bofferding, Heidi Gildersleeve, Ann Rutherford, Natalia M. Astakhova, Andrey A. Perelygin, Michael P. Busch, Kristy O. Murray, James J. Sejvar, Sharone Green, John Kriesel, Margo A. Brinton, Michael Bamshad

Sharone Green

West Nile virus (WNV), a category B pathogen endemic in parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, emerged in North America in 1999, and spread rapidly across the continental U.S. Outcomes of infection with WNV range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease manifested as encephalitis, paralysis, and/or death. Neuroinvasive WNV disease occurs in less than one percent of cases, and although host genetic factors are thought to influence risk for symptomatic disease, the identity of these factors remains largely unknown. We tested 360 common haplotype tagging and/or functional SNPs in 86 genes that encode key regulators of immune ...


Plagiarism Of Ideas. Benjamin Rush And Charles Caldwell--A Student-Mentor Dispute, Charles T. Ambrose Jan 2014

Plagiarism Of Ideas. Benjamin Rush And Charles Caldwell--A Student-Mentor Dispute, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.