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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

T-Cell Responses To Dengue Virus In Humans, Ichiro Kurane, Takaji Matsutani, Ryuji Suzuki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Francis A. Ennis Dec 2011

T-Cell Responses To Dengue Virus In Humans, Ichiro Kurane, Takaji Matsutani, Ryuji Suzuki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Francis A. Ennis

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

Dengue virus (DENV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Dengue virus infection induces specific CD4+CD8- and CD8+CD4- T cells in humans. In primary infection, T-cell responses to DENV are serotype cross-reactive, but the highest response is to the serotype that caused the infection. The epitopes recognized by DENV-specific T cells are located in most of the structural and non-structural proteins, but NS3 is the protein that is most dominantly recognized. In patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) caused by secondary DENV infection, T cells are highly activated ...


Host Genetic Risk Factors For West Nile Virus Infection And Disease Progression, Abigail W. Bigham, Kati J. Buckingham, Sofia Husain, Mary J. Edmond, Kathryn M. Bofferding, Heidi Gildersleeve, Ann Rutherford, Natalia M. Astakhova, Andrey A. Perelygin, Michael P. Busch, Kristy O. Murray, James J. Sejvar, Sharone Green, John Kriesel, Margo A. Brinton, Michael Bamshad Sep 2011

Host Genetic Risk Factors For West Nile Virus Infection And Disease Progression, Abigail W. Bigham, Kati J. Buckingham, Sofia Husain, Mary J. Edmond, Kathryn M. Bofferding, Heidi Gildersleeve, Ann Rutherford, Natalia M. Astakhova, Andrey A. Perelygin, Michael P. Busch, Kristy O. Murray, James J. Sejvar, Sharone Green, John Kriesel, Margo A. Brinton, Michael Bamshad

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

West Nile virus (WNV), a category B pathogen endemic in parts of Africa, Asia and Europe, emerged in North America in 1999, and spread rapidly across the continental U.S. Outcomes of infection with WNV range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease manifested as encephalitis, paralysis, and/or death. Neuroinvasive WNV disease occurs in less than one percent of cases, and although host genetic factors are thought to influence risk for symptomatic disease, the identity of these factors remains largely unknown. We tested 360 common haplotype tagging and/or functional SNPs in 86 genes that encode key regulators of immune ...


Extended Interferon-Alpha Therapy Accelerates Telomere Length Loss In Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes, Joel M. O'Bryan, James A. Potts, Herbert L. Bonkovsky, Anuja Mathew, Alan L. Rothman Aug 2011

Extended Interferon-Alpha Therapy Accelerates Telomere Length Loss In Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes, Joel M. O'Bryan, James A. Potts, Herbert L. Bonkovsky, Anuja Mathew, Alan L. Rothman

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Type I interferons have pleiotropic effects on host cells, including inhibiting telomerase in lymphocytes and antiviral activity. We tested the hypothesis that long-term interferon treatment would result in significant reduction in average telomere length in peripheral blood T lymphocytes.

METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a flow cytometry-based telomere length assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from the Hepatitis-C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) study, we measured T cell telomere lengths at screening and at months 21 and 45 in 29 Hepatitis-C virus infected subjects. These subjects had failed to achieve a sustained virologic response following 24 weeks of ...


Cross-Reactivity And Expansion Of Dengue-Specific T Cells During Acute Primary And Secondary Infections In Humans, Heather L. Friberg-Robertson, Hema Sundara Bashyam, Tomoko Toyosaki-Maeda, James A. Potts, Thomas C. Greenough, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Robert V. Gibbons, Ananda Nisalak, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Henry A. F. Stephens, Alan L. Rothman, Anuja Mathew Aug 2011

Cross-Reactivity And Expansion Of Dengue-Specific T Cells During Acute Primary And Secondary Infections In Humans, Heather L. Friberg-Robertson, Hema Sundara Bashyam, Tomoko Toyosaki-Maeda, James A. Potts, Thomas C. Greenough, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Robert V. Gibbons, Ananda Nisalak, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sharone Green, Henry A. F. Stephens, Alan L. Rothman, Anuja Mathew

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

Serotype-cross-reactive memory T cells responding to secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection are thought to contribute to disease. However, epitope-specific T cell responses have not been thoroughly compared between subjects with primary versus secondary DENV infection. We studied CD8(+) T cells specific for the HLA-A*1101-restricted NS3(133) epitope in a cohort of A11(+) DENV-infected patients throughout acute illness and convalescence. We compared the expansion, serotype-cross-reactivity, and activation of these cells in PBMC from patients experiencing primary or secondary infection and mild or severe disease by flow cytometry. Our results show expansion and activation of DENV-specific CD8(+) T cells during acute ...


Epigenetic Regulation In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Pranoti Mandrekar May 2011

Epigenetic Regulation In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Pranoti Mandrekar

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by steatosis or fat deposition in the liver and inflammation, which leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Induction of target genes without involving changes in DNA sequence seems to contribute greatly to liver injury. Chromatin modifications including alterations in histones and DNA, as well as post-transcriptional changes collectively referred to as epigenetic effects are altered by alcohol. Recent studies have pointed to a significant role for epigenetic mechanisms at the nucleosomal level influencing gene expression and disease outcome in ALD. Specifically, epigenetic alterations by alcohol include histone modifications such as changes in acetylation and ...


Determinants Of Inapparent And Symptomatic Dengue Infection In A Prospective Study Of Primary School Children In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Timothy P. Endy, Kathryn B. Anderson, Ananda Nisalak, In-Kyu Yoon, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Stephen J. Thomas, Richard G. Jarman, Daniel H. Libraty, Robert V. Gibbons Mar 2011

Determinants Of Inapparent And Symptomatic Dengue Infection In A Prospective Study Of Primary School Children In Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand, Timothy P. Endy, Kathryn B. Anderson, Ananda Nisalak, In-Kyu Yoon, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Stephen J. Thomas, Richard G. Jarman, Daniel H. Libraty, Robert V. Gibbons

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Dengue viruses are a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Inapparent dengue is an important component of the overall burden of dengue infection. It provides a source of infection for mosquito transmission during the course of an epidemic, yet by definition is undetected by health care providers. Previous studies of inapparent or subclinical infection have reported varying ratios of symptomatic to inapparent dengue infection.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective study of school children in Northern Thailand, we describe the spatial and temporal variation of the symptomatic to inapparent (S:I) dengue illness ...


Religion And Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative, Elena Salmoirago Blotcher, George Fitchett, Judith K. Ockene, Eliezer Schnall, Sybil L. Crawford, Iris Granek, Joanne Manson, Ira S. Ockene, Mary Jo O'Sullivan, Linda Powell, Stephen Rapp Feb 2011

Religion And Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative, Elena Salmoirago Blotcher, George Fitchett, Judith K. Ockene, Eliezer Schnall, Sybil L. Crawford, Iris Granek, Joanne Manson, Ira S. Ockene, Mary Jo O'Sullivan, Linda Powell, Stephen Rapp

GSBS Student Publications

Worship attendance has been associated with longer survival in prospective cohort studies. A possible explanation is that religious involvement may promote healthier lifestyle choices. Therefore, we examined whether attendance is associated with healthy behaviors, i.e. use of preventive medicine services, non-smoking, moderate drinking, exercising regularly, and with healthy dietary habits. The population included 71,689 post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study free of chronic diseases at baseline. Attendance and lifestyle behaviors information was collected at baseline using self-administered questionnaires. Healthy behaviors were modeled as a function of attendance using logistic regression. After adjustment for ...


Final Exam: A Surgeon's Reflections On Mortality (Book Review), Harvey Fenigsohn Feb 2011

Final Exam: A Surgeon's Reflections On Mortality (Book Review), Harvey Fenigsohn

OMHA Book Reviews

Book review of: Pauline W. Chen, M.D., Final Exam: A Surgeon's Reflections on Mortality (Vintage Books), 1997. Reviewed February 2011 by Harvey Fenigsohn.


Deaf Individuals’ Bilingual Abilities: American Sign Language Proficiency, Reading Skills, And Family Characteristics, Brittany L. Freel, M. Diane Clark, Melissa L. Anderson, Gizelle L. Gilbert, Millicent M. Musyoka, Peter C. Hauser Feb 2011

Deaf Individuals’ Bilingual Abilities: American Sign Language Proficiency, Reading Skills, And Family Characteristics, Brittany L. Freel, M. Diane Clark, Melissa L. Anderson, Gizelle L. Gilbert, Millicent M. Musyoka, Peter C. Hauser

Implementation Science and Practice Advances Research Center Publications

The current study investigated the bilingual abilities of 55 Deaf individuals, examining both American Sign Language (ASL) competency and English reading skills. Results revealed a positive relationship between ASL competency and English skills, with highly competent signers scoring higher on a measure of reading comprehension. Additionally, family characteristics (e.g., parental education level, family hearing status) were entered into the analysis to ascertain their effect on Deaf individuals’ bilingual abilities. The findings support the theory that competency in ASL may serve as a bridge to the acquisition of English print. Moreover, the findings provide support for the critical period hypothesis ...