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Current Research: Toward A Collaborative Development Of A Truly Comprehensive Multi-State Material Culture Database, Duncan P. Mckinnon Jan 2018

Current Research: Toward A Collaborative Development Of A Truly Comprehensive Multi-State Material Culture Database, Duncan P. Mckinnon

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Throughout the past several years, I have been compiling, with the help of several Caddo researchers, a comprehensive multi-state database primarily composed of whole Caddo vessels from published excavations, private collections, and archaeological reports. At present, the database contains over 13,000 vessel entries from over 500 sites ranging from a single vessel recorded at a site to hundreds. Over the years, the database has evolved to contain, where applicable, attribute fields on type, variety, motif designs (largely using the Glossary of Motifs published in the Spiro shell engravings, collegiate assignment, form, temper, decorative method (incised, brushed, etc.), context (burial ...


Current Research: Current Research In The Upper Mcgee Creek Drainage, Oklahoma, James Briscoe Jan 2018

Current Research: Current Research In The Upper Mcgee Creek Drainage, Oklahoma, James Briscoe

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In recent years the Choctaw Nation has acquired a roughly 80 square mile ranch in the western edge of the Winding Stair Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma. The land is currently a working ranch and timber management area. Choctaw Forestry manages timber activities and range management with the intention of returning the land to an oak savanna setting. Active logging of pine and selected hardwoods and on-going controlled surface burns are included in Forestry activity on the ranch. The project is supported by the Choctaw Nation Historic Preservation Department, which is responsible for the inventory and protection of the cultural resources ...


The Cosmos In Clay: An Analysis Of Avery Engraved Vessel Motifs, Louisa Nash Jan 2018

The Cosmos In Clay: An Analysis Of Avery Engraved Vessel Motifs, Louisa Nash

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This study seeks to provide new interpretations for the abstract and geometric Avery Engraved vessel motifs created by the prehistoric Caddo. I argue that certain motifs represent wings, feathers, and the Upper World, while other motifs act as locatives and are representative of the Lower World in the Caddo conception of a tiered universe. Given the nature of archaeological research, it is not possible to ascertain all of the implications, nuances, and complexities of the motifs that appear on Avery Engraved vessels. However, this study and others like it, which work to extrapolate the meaning of motifs through comparative analysis ...


The Effects Of Horses And Raiding On The Salt Industry In Northwest Louisiana, Paul N. Eubanks Jan 2018

The Effects Of Horses And Raiding On The Salt Industry In Northwest Louisiana, Paul N. Eubanks

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

When French explorers first arrived in northwest Louisiana, the local Caddo Indians had already earned a reputation for being important players in the salt trade. Likewise, many western Caddo groups living near the southern Plains were known for their involvement in the horse trade. In the first part of this paper, the relationship between the local salt industry and the introduction of the horse is considered. It is suggested that at least some of the salt made in northwest Louisiana was being fed to horses and other livestock acquired either directly or indirectly from the Spanish. In addition to its ...


Current Research: Recent Documentation Of Ceramic Vessels And Other Funerary Objects In The Titus Phase Cemetery At The Tuck Carpenter Site, Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Kevin Stingley, Tom Middlebrook Jan 2018

Current Research: Recent Documentation Of Ceramic Vessels And Other Funerary Objects In The Titus Phase Cemetery At The Tuck Carpenter Site, Camp County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Kevin Stingley, Tom Middlebrook

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Recently, we had the opportunity to complete the documentation of Late Caddo period Titus phase ceramic vessels and other funerary offerings from the Tuck Carpenter site (41CP5) in the Big Cypress Creek basin in Camp County, Texas. This portion of the funerary assemblage from the site has been in the hands of R. W. Walsh since the 1960s. Unable to properly care for the assemblage, he recently donated his collection to an anonymous individual, who graciously allowed us to fully document these funerary offerings.

The Tuck Carpenter site (41CP5), on Dry Creek several miles from its confluence with Big Cypress ...


Feature-Scale Analysis Using Ground-Penetrating Radar And Low Altitude Prospection At The Collins Mounds Site, Northwest Arkansas, Stephanie M. Sullivan, Tiago Attore Jan 2018

Feature-Scale Analysis Using Ground-Penetrating Radar And Low Altitude Prospection At The Collins Mounds Site, Northwest Arkansas, Stephanie M. Sullivan, Tiago Attore

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Geophysical survey and other non-invasive methods are, in some cases, the only options available for archaeological investigation. This is exemplified at the Collins site, a possible Late Woodland to Middle Mississippian period, multi-mound, civic ceremonial center in Northwest Arkansas. The site is located on private property and although excavation is not allowed, non-invasive survey methods are permitted on its northern section. This paper presents the results of a ground-penetrating radar survey over Mounds B, C, and D. The results reveal a number of features that are interpreted as mortuary structures as well as evidence of multiple building episodes over time ...


Addressing The Cosmological Significance Of A Pot: A Search For Cosmological Structure In The Craig Mound, Shawn Lambert Jan 2018

Addressing The Cosmological Significance Of A Pot: A Search For Cosmological Structure In The Craig Mound, Shawn Lambert

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Ceramic vessels and cosmological structure at first may seem quite unrelated. Many argue the basic and perhaps only function of a pot was a simple human-made container which held foodstuff for cooking and serving purposes. Pre-Contact communities also used ceramics to display complex iconography, some of which may represent important cosmological meanings in time and space. For this paper, I examine the temporal and spatial placement of pottery in 98 Craig Mound burials at the Spiro site in search for cosmological patterns in the imagery of the vessels. Only burials unassociated with the Great Mortuary and the Spirit Lodge were ...


Middle Caddo Whole Vessels From The Ferguson Site (3he63), Pritam Chowdhury Jan 2018

Middle Caddo Whole Vessels From The Ferguson Site (3he63), Pritam Chowdhury

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Ferguson site (3HE63) is a Caddo ceremonial center in Hempstead County, Arkansas. The Arkansas Archeological Survey and Arkansas Archeological Society excavated Ferguson between 1972 and 1974, under the direction of Dr. Frank Schambach. The site has a middle Caddo Haley phase (A.D. 1200- 1400) component consisting of two mounds, several structures, and a small cemetery area, set atop a 2-acre Woodland period Fourche Maline village. One of the mounds included several elite Caddo shaft graves rich with ceramic artifacts. My recent research with Ferguson site collections included a metric and stylistic analysis of whole vessel ceramics from the ...


8th Edition Of The Archaeology, Bioarchaeology, Ethnography, Ethnohistory, And History Of The Caddo Indian Peoples Of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, And Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2018

8th Edition Of The Archaeology, Bioarchaeology, Ethnography, Ethnohistory, And History Of The Caddo Indian Peoples Of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, And Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This Bibliography, the January 2018 edition, is the latest and most comprehensive version of published sources concerning the archaeology, bioarchaeology, ethnography, ethnography, and history of the Caddo Indian peoples of the Trans-Mississippi South. I have continued to update and reformat the bibliography through the Friends of Northeast Texas Archaeology, not for publication but as a resource to be shared. It is my hope that this most current and 8th edition of the bibliography will continue to be a useful reference work for people conducting research on, and/or are interested in, Caddo native history and culture.

This latest and updated ...


Current Research At Arkansas Archeological Survey’S Henderson State University Research Station, Mary Beth D. Trubitt, Chelsea Cinotto Jan 2018

Current Research At Arkansas Archeological Survey’S Henderson State University Research Station, Mary Beth D. Trubitt, Chelsea Cinotto

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

During 2017, the Arkansas Archeological Survey celebrated its 50th anniversary with a series of website postings (http://archeology.uark.edu/who-we-are/50moments/), a forum at the annual meeting of the Arkansas Archeological Society, and a symposium at the annual Southeastern Archaeological Conference in Tulsa. In addition, the Survey made strides in documenting and archiving its history and collections. The Survey’s Henderson State University (HSU) Research Station in Arkadelphia continued to inventory curated artifact collections and scan older paper records and color slides. Trubitt and Cinotto, assisted by volunteers during weekly Archeology Lab Days, are updating the station’s curated ...


Documentation Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels And Other Artifacts From East Texas Sites In The George T. Wright Collection At The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2018

Documentation Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels And Other Artifacts From East Texas Sites In The George T. Wright Collection At The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

From the early 1900s to the mid-1940s George T. Wright was a landowner (Kiomatia Plantation) and Vice-President of the Kiomitia Mercantile Company: General Merchandise in Kiomatia and Paris, Texas. He was also an avid Indian artifact collector at sites along the Red River in Red River County, Texas, as well as in McCurtain County, Oklahoma, especially the collection of Caddo ceramic vessels, and also dug at sites he knew in the area, including the Wright Plantation site (41RR7), which he owned, and the Sam Coffman site (now known as Sam Kaufman, 41RR16, and for a short time known as the ...


Current Research: Ceramic Production And Distribution During The Formative Caddo Period: A Stylistic And Provenance Investigation Of The Arkansas River Valley, Shawn Lambert Jan 2018

Current Research: Ceramic Production And Distribution During The Formative Caddo Period: A Stylistic And Provenance Investigation Of The Arkansas River Valley, Shawn Lambert

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Formative Caddo Period (A.D. 850-1100) of eastern Oklahoma was marked by dramatic material and ritual changes, culminating in the construction of aggregated villages and ceremonial centers. Formative Caddo groups are notable for their highly complex and ritually-charged ceramic vessels that were unlike anything archeologists have seen in the American Southeast. Tracing the rapid development and spread of this early fine ware assemblage across a variety of social, ritual, and mortuary contexts is key to understanding the shared religious and ritual traditions of the pre-Columbian Arkansas River valley and surrounding Coastal Plain drainages. Yet despite nearly 60 years of ...


The Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts From The Spradley Site (41na206), Nacogdoches County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Paul Marceaux Jan 2018

The Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts From The Spradley Site (41na206), Nacogdoches County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Paul Marceaux

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Spradley site (41NA206) is a Native American archaeological site in the Bayou La Nana valley in Nacogdoches County in the East Texas Pineywoods. Bayou La Nana is a southward-flowing tributary to the Angelina River. The site is best known for its late 17th-early 18th century Historic Caddo period occupation, and the recovery of a number of European trade goods from habitation deposits, but the site was also occupied in Late Archaic (ca. 5000-2500 years B.P.), Woodland (ca. 2500-1150 years B.P.), and pre-A.D. 1400 Caddo periods. The Spradley site was the scene of Stephen F. Austin State ...


The Occurrence Of East Texas Caddo Ceramic Vessel Sherds In Central Texas Archaeological Region Sites, Ca. A.D. 900 To The Late 18th Century, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2018

The Occurrence Of East Texas Caddo Ceramic Vessel Sherds In Central Texas Archaeological Region Sites, Ca. A.D. 900 To The Late 18th Century, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The development and maintenance of long-distance trade networks for both economic, social, and religious purposes was a notable feature of the ancestral Caddo tradition from its very beginnings, and this includes the Caddo peoples that lived in East Texas. Bison hides, salt, raw materials such as copper, galena, stone, and marine shell, and finished objects such as pottery vessels (and possibly their contents), were part of the trading system.

Much of the archaeological evidence for the Caddo long-distance trade and exchange networks of prestige goods occur in contexts dating from ca. A.D. 800 to 1400, with long-distance trade outside ...


A Preliminary Study Of Smithport Plain Bottle Morphology In The Southern Caddo Area, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2018

A Preliminary Study Of Smithport Plain Bottle Morphology In The Southern Caddo Area, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

CRHR: Archaeology

This study expands upon a previous analysis of the Clarence H. Webb collection, which resulted in the identification of two discrete shapes used in the manufacture of the base and body of Smithport Plain bottles. The sample includes the Smithport Plain bottles from the Webb collection, and four new bottles: two previously repatriated specimens in the Pohler Collection, and two from the Mitchell site (41BW4) to test whether those specimens align morphologically with the Belcher Mound or Smithport Landing specimens. Results indicate significant allometry and a significant difference in Smithport Plain body and base shapes for bottles produced at the ...


Analysis Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Assemblages From The Gas Line Site (41ce63) And 41ce289, Neches River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Analysis Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Assemblages From The Gas Line Site (41ce63) And 41ce289, Neches River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In this article, I discuss the character of the Caddo archaeological assemblages at two sites on Bowles Creek in the Neches River basin that are just north of the important mound center at the George C. Davis site (41CE19): namely the Gas Line site (41CE63) and 41CE289. All three sites are on a broad alluvial terrace of the Neches River and Bowles Creek (Figure 1); the confluence of the two streams is ca. 4.0 km south of 41CE289. Both sites appear to have been occupied by Caddo peoples after the main occupation at George C. Davis ended at ca ...


The Beckham (41sb35) And Print Bell (41sb36) Woodland Period And Caddo Ceramic Assemblages Collected By G. E. Arnold In 1939, Sabine County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

The Beckham (41sb35) And Print Bell (41sb36) Woodland Period And Caddo Ceramic Assemblages Collected By G. E. Arnold In 1939, Sabine County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Beckham (41SB35) and Print Bell (41SB36) sites were recorded by Gus E. Arnold of The University of Texas in December 1939 during his WPA-sponsored archaeological survey of East Texas. Both sites have substantial ancestral Caddo deposits. The Beckham site is in the Housen Bayou basin of the larger Sabine River drainage system, while the Print Bell site is on a tributary of the Angelina River (Figure 1). Excavations were conducted at the Print Bell site in the early 1950s by Jelks (1965:88- 93) prior to the construction of Lake Sam Rayburn, but there have been no further investigations ...


The M. S. Roberts Site (41he8): Archaeological Investigations At A Caddo Mound Site In The Upper Neches River Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2017

The M. S. Roberts Site (41he8): Archaeological Investigations At A Caddo Mound Site In The Upper Neches River Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The first archaeological investigations at the M. S. Roberts site in the Caddo Creek valley of the upper Neches River basin in East Texas (Figure 1) was by University of Texas (UT) archaeologists in 1931 (Perttula 2016). In that work, UT archaeologists excavated a trench of unknown size in the ancestral Caddo mound at the site, and gathered a surface collection from the plowed cotton field around the mound.

No further archaeological work was done at the site until January 2015 when a surface collection was obtained at the site with the permission of the landowners, Jim and Denise Renfroe ...


Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Tom Shumate Site (41rk2), Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Tom Shumate Site (41rk2), Rusk County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The subject of this article are the four ancestral Caddo ceramic vessels from the Tom Shumate site (41RK2) in Rusk County. The site is on Dry Creek in the upper Angelina River basin, about 5 km southeast of the town of Mount Enterprise, Texas (Figure 1). The ceramic vessels were found by the landowner after a flood in April 1935 had exposed a burial feature. Later work in 1935 by The University of Texas at Austin, led by A. T. Jackson, recovered no additional burial features; Jackson purchased the vessels from the landowner.


Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels From East Texas Sites Held By The Gila Pueblo Museum From 1933 To 2017, Timothy K. Perttula, Kevin Stingley Jan 2017

Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels From East Texas Sites Held By The Gila Pueblo Museum From 1933 To 2017, Timothy K. Perttula, Kevin Stingley

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In the summer of 2017, 21 ancestral Caddo ceramic vessels held since 1933 by the Gila Pueblo Museum and then by the Arizona State Museum were returned to the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin (TARL). These vessels had not been properly or fully studied and documented when the University of Texas exchanged these vessels, so our purpose in documenting these vessels now is primarily concerned with determining the stylistic (i.e., decorative methods, motifs, and decorative elements) and technological (i.e., vessel form, temper, and vessel size) character of the vessels that are in ...


Southwestern Pottery Sherd From The Caddo Creek Valley In The Upper Neches River Basin Of East Texas, Timothy Perttula, Mark Walters Jan 2017

Southwestern Pottery Sherd From The Caddo Creek Valley In The Upper Neches River Basin Of East Texas, Timothy Perttula, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

There are material culture remains found on East Texas sites that provide direct evidence of farflung contacts between East Texas’s native American peoples and native American communities in the Southwest (see Baugh 1998). Such material culture items include obsidian from the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico (Perttula and Hester 2016), turquoise from New Mexico sources (Walters 2006), and sherds from ceramic vessels made in the Puebloan Southwest (Hayner 1955; Jurney and Young 1995; Krieger 1946:Plate 6j). Such artifacts, however, are rarely recovered in East Texas archaeological sites. In this article, we discuss a sherd found from an archaeological ...


The Bonner Place (41ag3) And J. A. Jordan (41ag5) Sites In The Neches River Basin, Angelina County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

The Bonner Place (41ag3) And J. A. Jordan (41ag5) Sites In The Neches River Basin, Angelina County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Bonner Place (41AG3) and J. A. Jordan (41AG5) sites are ancestral Caddo habitation sites recorded by Gus E. Arnold in November 1939 during his WPA-sponsored archaeological survey of East Texas. Both sites are in the Crawford Creek drainage; Crawford Creek is a westward-flowing tributary of the Neches River (Figure 1).


Radiocarbon Dates From Aboriginal Sites In Cherokee, Henderson, And Tyler Counties In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Radiocarbon Dates From Aboriginal Sites In Cherokee, Henderson, And Tyler Counties In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The newly obtained radiocarbon dates discussed in this article were done by DirectAMS of Seattle, Washington. Three of the sites have only a single AMS radiocarbon date, while four radiocarbon dates have been obtained from the M. S. Roberts site (41HS8) on Caddo Creek in the Neches River basin. The radiocarbon ages obtained on these samples have been calibrated to 2 sigma using IntCal 13 (Reimer et al. 2013). These dates were obtained to continue to expand the utility of the East Texas Radiocarbon Database to better understand the age of archaeological components at sites in the region, as well ...


An Historic Caddo Burial At The Swen Farm Site (41bw65), Bowie County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

An Historic Caddo Burial At The Swen Farm Site (41bw65), Bowie County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Swen Farm site is on an alluvial terrace (220-230 ft. amsl) of the Sulphur River. When it was first recorded in 1970 prior to the enlargement of Lake Wright Patman the landform was an island in the reservoir, with the submerged channel of the river along the eastern and northern sides of the island, with artifacts of Archaic, Woodland, and ancestral Caddo period age exposed in several areas, and midden deposits were also present (Briggs and Malone 1970). In 1971, an early 18th century Caddo burial feature was discovered at the site by L. H. Head, Sr., of Texarkana ...


The J. B. Maxwell Site (41ce43) In The Mud Creek Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

The J. B. Maxwell Site (41ce43) In The Mud Creek Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Gus E. Arnold recorded the J. B. Maxwell site (41CE43), an ancestral Caddo site, in March 1940 under the auspices of the WPA-sponsored archaeological survey of East Texas. The site covered 2 acres of an upland landform/bluff overlooking the Turnpike Creek floodplain. Turnpike Creek is a tributary to Mud Creek in the Angelina River basin (Figure 1).


Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Sherds From 2016 Investigations At 41mr211, Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Sherds From 2016 Investigations At 41mr211, Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Renewed archaeological investigations in 2016 by the Texas Historical Commission at the early 19th century Caddo site 41MR211 recovered a small number of ancestral Caddo ceramic vessel sherds from a variety of contexts in Locus 3 (Table 1), which is located just east of the main 1999 excavation block (Figure 1). The sherds are from grog-tempered (70 percent) and shell-tempered (30 percent) vessels. In the larger vessel sherd assemblage (n=368) reported by Parsons et al. (2002a, 2002b) from 41MR211, 36.8 percent of the sherds are from shell-tempered vessels and 59.4 percent are from vessels made with grog ...


Magnetic Gradient Survey At The M. S. Roberts (41he8) Site In Henderson County, Texas, Duncan P. Mckinnon, Timothy K. Perttula, Arlo Mckee Jan 2017

Magnetic Gradient Survey At The M. S. Roberts (41he8) Site In Henderson County, Texas, Duncan P. Mckinnon, Timothy K. Perttula, Arlo Mckee

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The M. S. Roberts site is located in Henderson County, Texas and it represents one of the few known Caddo mound sites in the upper Neches River Basin in northeast Texas (Figure 1). The site is situated along Caddo Creek – an eastward-flowing tributary of the Neches River (Perttula et al. 2016; Perttula 2016; Perttula and Walters 2016). The site is located southeast of Athens, Texas. When first recorded, the single mound at the site was approximately 24 m long and 20 m wide and roughly 1.7 m in height (Pearce and Jackson 1931). Directly west of the mound was ...


41ag9 And 41ag10: Ancestral Caddo Sites On Percella Creek In The Angelina River Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

41ag9 And 41ag10: Ancestral Caddo Sites On Percella Creek In The Angelina River Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Both 41AG9 (ET-609) and 41AG10 (ET-610) were identified and recorded by Gus E. Arnold in late 1939-early 1940 under the auspices of the very successful WPA University of Texas archaeological survey of East Texas; they are only ca. 400 m apart. The sites are on elevated alluvial landforms in the Percella Creek valley; Percella Creek is an eastward-flowing tributary to the Angelina River, and joins the river about 3 km to the east of the sites (Figure 1).

During Arnold’s archaeological survey, he collected substantial numbers of ceramic vessel sherds from both sites, and the sites were in plowed ...


Current Archeological Research In East Texas: Documentation Of Wps-Gus Arnold Archeological Survey Collections, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Current Archeological Research In East Texas: Documentation Of Wps-Gus Arnold Archeological Survey Collections, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Gus Arnold identified and recorded many ancestral Caddo sites during his 1939-1940 Works Progress Administration (WPA)-sponsored archeological survey of East Texas. Currently, I have been engaged in studying the artifact collections from 51 WPA sites in Angelina, Cherokee, Gregg, Jasper, Nacogdoches, Sabine, and San Augustine counties, especially the ceramic sherd assemblages, held by the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas. The sites are located in the Sabine River, Neches River, Angelina River, and Attoyac Bayou stream basins.


New Radiocarbon Dates From The Sanders Site (41lr2), Lamar County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

New Radiocarbon Dates From The Sanders Site (41lr2), Lamar County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Recent archaeological investigations at the West Mound at the Sanders site (41LR2), on the Red River in Lamar County, Texas, disclosed substantial archaeological deposits associated with a burned clay floor to an ancestral Caddo structure in the mound. A significant part of the archaeological deposit were unburned animal bones of turtle, deer, and bison, along with Middle Caddo period, Sanders phase, fine and utility ware ceramic sherds; Sanders is one of 26 known Caddo sites in East Texas with bison bones and/or tools. In this article, I discuss the results of the radiocarbon dating of two samples of animal ...