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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Teaching Structures Online: Finding Opportunities For Tangible Engagement, Dustin Albright Jun 2019

Teaching Structures Online: Finding Opportunities For Tangible Engagement, Dustin Albright

Building Technology Educator's Society

Faced with increasing demand but limited flexibility within the academic year, the School of Architecture at Clemson University developed and delivered an online version of its undergraduate Structures 2 course during the summer of 2018. This shift in timing and format presented a range of challenges, most significantly the compressed schedule (six weeks to deliver fifteen weeks of content), and the desire to maintain engaged, experiential learning despite the detachment and asynchronicity introduced by the online setup.

With respect to this remoteness, it proved fruitful to turn the challenge on its head and instead identify opportunities afforded by the geographic ...


Integrative Design And The Problem Of Fragmented Knowledge, Dustin Albright, Ufuk Ersoy, David Franco, Ulrike Heine Jun 2019

Integrative Design And The Problem Of Fragmented Knowledge, Dustin Albright, Ufuk Ersoy, David Franco, Ulrike Heine

Building Technology Educator's Society

During its 2017 NAAB accreditation, the School of Architecture at Clemson University received high marks for Integrative Design, having met this criterion “with distinction.” The report stated: “There was ample evidence… from the comprehensive design studios that students possessed the necessary abilities and skills to synthesize a broad range of contextual, design, and technical considerations into an integrated design solution…. The quality of the projects is high, which is in large part due to collaborative teamwork.” Undergirding the effective collaboration of the students, the Comprehensive Studio thrives on a careful schedule plus measured team-teaching from the faculty.

The Studio comprises ...


Mbesese Build: An Experimental Experience, Kevin Dong, Thomas Fowler Iv Jun 2019

Mbesese Build: An Experimental Experience, Kevin Dong, Thomas Fowler Iv

Building Technology Educator's Society

The Same’ Polytechnic College is a proposed vocational training institution in the Kilimanjaro Region of the United Republic of Tanzania to provide supplemental and diversified tertiary educational opportunities which increase human capital and reduce the severe levels of poverty that are endemic in the region. The college is the pilot project for the Mbesese Initiative for Sustainable Design (MISD). MISD has partnered with design firms and Cal Poly-SLO to develop a framework for campus development. The Cal Poly team established overarching planning principles and design goals for buildings and related infrastructure required to support a projected enrollment of 1,200 ...


Bridging The Gap Between Architecture And Engineering: A Transdisciplinary Model For A Resilient Built Environment, Michelle Laboy, Annalisa Onnis-Hayden Jun 2019

Bridging The Gap Between Architecture And Engineering: A Transdisciplinary Model For A Resilient Built Environment, Michelle Laboy, Annalisa Onnis-Hayden

Building Technology Educator's Society

As the focus of environmental engineering increasingly shifts to landscape-based, decentralized solutions to energy and water; and as architecture increasingly shifts its attention to resilience, ecological connectivity and independence from centralized infrastructure, these two disciplines find themselves closer in scale than before. This paper presents a collaborative project between upper level architecture and environmental engineering students focused on the design of sustainable and integrated water systems. Critical features of transdisciplinarity included: the engagement of stakeholders in the process at multiple moments; the speculative nature of working on very distant futures, the multi-scalar requirements of the collaboration, and the expectation of ...


Expanding Strategies Towards Architectural Design And Building Technology Integration, Carolina Manrique Jun 2019

Expanding Strategies Towards Architectural Design And Building Technology Integration, Carolina Manrique

Building Technology Educator's Society

Our architecture program mission statement establishes that we “value design excellence centered in the poetic merging of the arts and technology”. This objective frames current curriculum and pedagogical strategies being implemented which aim to integrate the building technology sequence with architectural design studios at key moments in our undergraduate and graduate programs. Described as a “multifaceted integration model” in a recent publication by the author, a summary of strategies focused on our undergraduate Bachelor of Science in Architecture degree program was presented. These included introducing design thinking in materials and methods and the structural systems one-year sequence, integrating structures and ...


Microclimates At The Sixth Facade, Abby Reed, David Fannon Jun 2019

Microclimates At The Sixth Facade, Abby Reed, David Fannon

Building Technology Educator's Society

Elevating buildings above grade is an increasingly- common design approach to address risks of costal and riverine flooding. While elevating buildings improves resistance to flood waters and potentially debris damage, other implications are less well-understood, including the influence of unique thermal and moisture conditions in the space between the ground and the underside of the elevated building—the so-called sixth facade. Unlike conventional basements, crawlspaces, or slabs-on-grade that respond to soil moisture through the installation of a vapor barrier, exposed, elevated floors contend with unique hygrothermal conditions, linked-to but distinct- from both the soil and the ambient air.

Uncontrolled moisture ...


Trans-Disciplinary Detail In Mass Timber, David Kennedy Jun 2019

Trans-Disciplinary Detail In Mass Timber, David Kennedy

Building Technology Educator's Society

In Towards a New Architecture, Le Corbusier claims that the field of engineering, through its adherence to the noble fields of Economy and Mathematics, has surpassed the field of architecture in the pursuit of harmonious, meaningful structures. He does not suggest that architects partner with engineers; he only implores architects to cop-opt engineers’ ethic to leverage their own field from its current state of “retrogression”. Gaining expertise then obviates collaboration. Following this, Corbusier laments the glacial unfolding of architecture through incremental developments in structure and ornament, finding impetus for his cross-disciplinary foray in the previous five decades of material development ...


Intuition Before Integers: Integrating Building Technology Into The Design Studio, James Leach, Kristin Nelson Jun 2019

Intuition Before Integers: Integrating Building Technology Into The Design Studio, James Leach, Kristin Nelson

Building Technology Educator's Society

The studio methodology, used almost universally to teach architectural design in the US, embraces speculative investigation and hands-on learning, offering unparalleled opportunities for integrated thinking and open-ended inquiry. Building technology courses, in contrast, tend to be taught in more constrained, and more passive modes - lecture classes, sometimes accompanied by a laboratory or including a project or two. As instructors of both design studios and building technology courses, we have found it difficult to generate the level of engagement and enthusiasm, or achieve the depth of inquiry, in the technology classroom that is common in the design studio. Moreover, we find ...


Maps, Videos, And Structures: Visualizing Structural Concepts Through Media-Based Assignments, Marci Uihlein Jun 2019

Maps, Videos, And Structures: Visualizing Structural Concepts Through Media-Based Assignments, Marci Uihlein

Building Technology Educator's Society

Within building technology educators in architectural education, there is a frequent exploration of structural pedagogy. How best can the theory of structural design be taught? Are calculations necessary, for example? What participatory learning assignments can guide architectural students to haptic and intuitive understandings of structure? This paper adds to this discussion by presenting two exercises designed to capture the imagination of students whose environment is saturated with Snapchat, data visualization, and Instagram.

The first assignment is a digital “term paper” for graduate students that examines earthquake design through an analysis with GIS and presenting a “Story Map” of an historic ...


Material Design Integration, Roger Hubeli Jun 2019

Material Design Integration, Roger Hubeli

Building Technology Educator's Society

The goal of an integrative building design studio is for students to develop and prove the capacity to integrate different technical and possibly legal and financial considerations into their architectural projects. In this context, it is most important for the students to learn how to maintain a clear conceptual strategy that can serve as a ‘pièce de résistance’ against the multitude of different pressures, providing a larger framework for design decisions. This presentation discusses a series of projects where this ‘pièce de résistance’ was based on the design potentials of advanced pre-cast concrete construction. Tectonic concerns, with a focus on ...


Transdisciplinarity & Innovation: Smart Materials In Landscape Architecture Education, Carolina Aragon Jun 2019

Transdisciplinarity & Innovation: Smart Materials In Landscape Architecture Education, Carolina Aragon

Building Technology Educator's Society

Designed landscapes are physical manifestations of natural, cultural, and technological forces. As such, they can physically embody technologies that support sustainable practices, and provide experiences that foster their cultural acceptance. However, the current focus of sustainable design in the landscape architecture profession has centered on ecological performance, largely ignoring the role of aesthetics and new material practices. In particular, the incorporation of energy-generating materials, such as smart materials, has remained largely unexplored. As a result, new methods for expanding engagement with materials and technologies are needed.

The need to address technological innovation while providing meaningful aesthetic experiences points to the ...


Situated Learning Through Robotics Processes, Shahin Vassigh, Jorge Tubella, Hadi Alhaffar, Julian Ramirez, Sara Pezeshk Jun 2019

Situated Learning Through Robotics Processes, Shahin Vassigh, Jorge Tubella, Hadi Alhaffar, Julian Ramirez, Sara Pezeshk

Building Technology Educator's Society

Technological advances in robotics, digital fabrication, and sensor technologies are changing the landscape of innovation, design, and production. However, integration of these technologies in architecture programs is a challenging task. It requires extensive knowledge of the robotic arm operations, complex computer applications, and developing interdisciplinary skills for producing the end of arm tooling, which makes architectural experimentation and production possible. The following paper describes an informal approach to an interdisciplinary collaboration experiment for initiating operations of a new robotics lab. Leveraging the inaugural event of the lab, students and faculty were invited to design, construct, and participate in exhibiting four ...


Methods To Monitor And Simulate Existing Residences: Analyzing And Improving Energy And Comfort For Native Hawaiian Homeowners, Wendy Meguro Jun 2019

Methods To Monitor And Simulate Existing Residences: Analyzing And Improving Energy And Comfort For Native Hawaiian Homeowners, Wendy Meguro

Building Technology Educator's Society

To support the State of Hawaii’s goals of improving energy performance of buildings and reducing dependence on fossil fuels, this study develops design recommendations that could improve the energy efficiency and thermal comfort of hundreds of existing and future homes for native Hawaiian families.

This poster shares the methods and learning objectives used by faculty, researchers, and a team of architecture, electrical and mechanical engineering, and computer science students to chart a path to net-zero site energy use in residences in sub-tropical climates by monitoring and simulating existing houses.

The faculty from Architecture and Sea Grant structured the research ...


Bench: Biorhythmic Evaporative-Cooling Nano-Tech, Aletheia Ida Jun 2019

Bench: Biorhythmic Evaporative-Cooling Nano-Tech, Aletheia Ida

Building Technology Educator's Society

The Biorhythmic Evaporative-cooling Nano-TeCH (BENCH) system is conceived as a novel building skin for architectural enclosures responsive to human interactions for thermal comfort in hot-arid climate conditions. The membrane system concurrently integrates natural ventilation cooling and modulations in daylighting transmission for inhabitant wellbeing and multi-sensory phenomena experience. The BENCH demonstration prototype combines CNC shaped and stained laminated plywood with all wood joinery for the structure of a small covered seating area with atmospheric effects. The soft skin membrane encloses the structure with embedded hydrogels that are actuated with water pumping into the mesh pod modules through clear microbore tubing. Each ...


Developing Evidence-Based Tools And Resources For Material Selection, Erin Carraher, Luke Leither Jun 2019

Developing Evidence-Based Tools And Resources For Material Selection, Erin Carraher, Luke Leither

Building Technology Educator's Society

Building construction costs over a trillion dollars and accounts for half of the non-renewable resources consumed on an annual basis in the US, with materials and equipment comprising three-quarters of these costs. While not the final arbiters, architects play a critical role in determining what materials are specified for construction projects. Material selection in architecture has historically been taught through high- level lectures accompanied by empirical, evidence- based exercises and precedent studies during school followed by “in the field” experience for interns in practice. While there are many great resources that discuss material properties and analyze the use of specific ...


A Framework For Performance-Based Facade Design: Approach For Multi-Objective And Automated Simulation And Optimization, Mahsa Minaei, Ajla Aksamija Jun 2019

A Framework For Performance-Based Facade Design: Approach For Multi-Objective And Automated Simulation And Optimization, Mahsa Minaei, Ajla Aksamija

Building Technology Educator's Society

Buildings have a considerable impact on the environment, and it is crucial to consider environmental and energy performance in building design. In this regard, decision-makers are required to establish an optimal solution, considering multi-objective problems that are usually competitive and nonlinear, such as energy consumption, financial costs, environmental performance, occupant comfort, etc. Sustainable building design requires considerations of a large number of design variables and multiple, often conflicting objectives, such as the initial construction cost, energy cost, energy consumption and occupant satisfaction. One approach to address these issues is the use of building performance simulations and optimization methods.

This paper ...


Steel Structures That Breathe: Two Extensively Glazed Buildings That Integrate Natural Ventilation Within Structural Members, Patrick Charles Jun 2019

Steel Structures That Breathe: Two Extensively Glazed Buildings That Integrate Natural Ventilation Within Structural Members, Patrick Charles

Building Technology Educator's Society

The paper is a case study of two extensively-glazed steel- framed buildings, Jean Prouvé’s 1957 temporary school in Villejuif, France, and, Müller Verdan Architekten’s 2006 Sporthalle “Gotthelf” in Thun, Switzerland, that integrate natural ventilation within the building structure itself.

Practically, this unique approach enables the designers to provide usually mutually exclusive features, large glass formats and natural ventilation, without incurring the various penalties associated with operating such very heavy elements.

Conceptually, the idea of integrating the ventilation function within structural members goes against the standard orthodoxy consisting of the separation of enclosure systems from skeletal structural systems. This ...


A Student-Centered Active Learning Approach To Teaching Structures In A Bachelor Of Architecture Program, Marjorie Callahan, Shideh Shadravan, Yetunde Obasade, Elizabeth Hasenfratz Jun 2019

A Student-Centered Active Learning Approach To Teaching Structures In A Bachelor Of Architecture Program, Marjorie Callahan, Shideh Shadravan, Yetunde Obasade, Elizabeth Hasenfratz

Building Technology Educator's Society

Nearly all programs of architecture focus on structures as independent coursework, rather than on integrating pedagogy (i.e. how to teach structures in studio). To fill this gap, an innovative freshman workshop was developed in this study with a student-centered active learning approach to teach structures. In the present study, this approach combines three types of active learning activities: think-pair-build; in-class, all comrades’ shared discussions and review; and articulated student development reflections. The primary vehicle used for discovery is the Workshop Method. By focusing primarily on student’s own creative genre (small group designs), the class responds to what is ...


Lines Of Action: Investigating How Behaviors Of Structural Systems Can Be An Informing Agent Of Architectural Design, Sean Burns Jun 2019

Lines Of Action: Investigating How Behaviors Of Structural Systems Can Be An Informing Agent Of Architectural Design, Sean Burns

Building Technology Educator's Society

As part of an accredited architectural curriculum, students participate in a series of courses that introduce concepts of statics, structural principles, and methods of system analysis. As many students frequently become enamored with initial form generating procedures as an approach to architectural design, they regrettably consider the lessons presented within the sequence of structural courses as ancillary consequences to form making processes and disconnected from their concurrent design studio explorations. These assumptions lead to students over-emphasizing the appearance of an architectural act, as opposed to placing value on how architecture performs, offers spatial organization, and engages the site and its ...


‘Partners In Light:’ How Plastics Enabled Fluorescent Lighting And The Modern Office.”, Thomas W. Leslie Jun 2019

‘Partners In Light:’ How Plastics Enabled Fluorescent Lighting And The Modern Office.”, Thomas W. Leslie

Building Technology Educator's Society

Writing in 1946, Charles Breskin, the editor of Modern Plastics, suggested that designers were emerging from the “dark ages” of commercial lighting. While construction in America had lagged during the Depression and World War, scientific advances in many areas of building technology had surged, and new demand for residential and commercial space was matched by the desire for more efficient, comfortable, and mechanized buildings. While advances in building cladding and servicing have been well-covered, one key development—matching chemical developments in plastics with electrical and illuminatory advances in fluorescent lighting—had equally revolutionary impacts on building interiors.

Fluorescent lighting as ...


Concrete: Computation And Optimization, Nik Nikolov Jun 2019

Concrete: Computation And Optimization, Nik Nikolov

Building Technology Educator's Society

New materials require new design and construction methods. Even old materials are being continually developed with new properties that challenge the way we use them. A recent cycle of innovations has led to concretes with considerable and effective elastic limit in tension and flexural strength. The possibility to design in concrete as a single orthotropic material with both tensile and compressive properties create an opportunity for new products but also require new design approaches.

Topology optimization as an architectural design tool is largely unexplored, in contrast to its wide use in the field of mechanical engineering. Topologically optimized shapes are ...


Isa: Precedent Studies In Arch Structures Iii, Kristopher Palagi Jun 2019

Isa: Precedent Studies In Arch Structures Iii, Kristopher Palagi

Building Technology Educator's Society

Engaging structures as impetus for architectural design, this paper examines the implementation of an approach to precedent analysis -- the ISA -- within an architectural structures course. As a means to graft the knowledge digested into familiar design languages, this pedagogy frames the precedent work in three perspectives: First, an understanding of the designers’ intent through assigned readings, essays, and in-class discussions; Second, computational modeling of structural components utilizing Revit’s Adaptive Families; and finally, a comparative analysis of the impact of formal variations on the structural efficacy through diagramming load-path and lateral resistance. Selected for their passion regarding structural logic, the ...


Applying Nature’S Solutions To Architectural Problems, Jay Yowell Jun 2019

Applying Nature’S Solutions To Architectural Problems, Jay Yowell

Building Technology Educator's Society

Nature has inspired architecture for millennia and recent discoveries allow designers to understand the wealth of biological information further. The architectural profession is at a critical point in history with regards to reducing its impact on the environment. To truly minimize a building’s impact it needs to interact more holistically with its surroundings. The lessons learned from natural systems can be applied to architecture to lessen its environmental impact, and this is a critical point to ask: Will architects utilize construction technology as well as advanced scientific knowledge to create an architecture that behaves like nature? Imagine a building ...


Structures For Relief & Resiliency: Enhancing Creative Applications Of Technical Acumen Through Constrained Conditions, Rob Whitehead Jun 2019

Structures For Relief & Resiliency: Enhancing Creative Applications Of Technical Acumen Through Constrained Conditions, Rob Whitehead

Building Technology Educator's Society

The design of places, objects, and experiential operations are of great importance to the relief, recovery and rebuilding efforts that affect millions of people each year. Proactively designing for these scenarios requires a more than just sensitivity to the vexing nature of the people and their problems. The inter-disciplinary teams that assist in these efforts must be able to translate these activities into solutions that have insights into the structural, material, and construction considerations. Without these qualities, the tangible, useful, and deployable solutions could be marginalized until they become the lowest common denominator of design solutions.

The value of design ...


Big Glue! Testing The Scalability Of Adhesives In Architecture And Design, Emily White, Erik Sapper Jun 2019

Big Glue! Testing The Scalability Of Adhesives In Architecture And Design, Emily White, Erik Sapper

Building Technology Educator's Society

This paper documents the questions, methods and outcomes of “Big Glue,” a research collaboration among students and faculty from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo’s chemistry and architecture departments that explores the potentials of structural adhesives in architecture and design. The project asks how adhesives can be more broadly used as work increases in size from the scale of models to full-scale construction.

Our focus is on aluminum structures. We looked at existing adhesive use in construction and in the automotive industry, where adhesives are increasingly used on aluminum and aluminum composites to reduce weight and consequently increase fuel efficiencies ...


Energy Use Intensity As A Driver For Building-Envelope Design, Scott Murray Jun 2019

Energy Use Intensity As A Driver For Building-Envelope Design, Scott Murray

Building Technology Educator's Society

As the principal interface between interior and exterior environments, the building envelope plays a primary role in the success or failure of a building’s response to its climate. The design and subsequent performance of building-envelope systems can have significant impacts on the overall energy performance of a building during its lifespan. Design decisions about window-to-wall ratios, the placement and orientation of glazing and shading devices, the components of opaque wall assemblies, and the selection of facade materials, products, and systems each contribute to a building envelope’s performance. To design high-performance enclosures, architects must understand the relationship between these ...


Urban Food Systems: Applying Life Cycle Assessment In Built Environments And Aquaponics, Alex Ianchenko, Gundula Proksch Jun 2019

Urban Food Systems: Applying Life Cycle Assessment In Built Environments And Aquaponics, Alex Ianchenko, Gundula Proksch

Building Technology Educator's Society

As the building sector faces global challenges that affect urban supplies of food, water and energy, multifaceted sustainability solutions need to be re-examined through the lens of built environments. Aquaponics, a strategy that combines recirculating aquaculture with hydroponics to optimize fish and plant production, has been recognized as one of "ten technologies which could change our lives" by merit of its potential to revolutionize how we feed urban populations. To holistically assess the environmental performance of urban aquaponic farms, impacts generated by aquaponic systems must be combined with impacts generated by host envelopes. This paper outlines the opportunities and challenges ...


Testing Is Teaching Too: Transitioning A Large-Lecture Course From Summative To Formative Exams, Robert Arens, Brian Osborn, Carmen Trudell Jun 2019

Testing Is Teaching Too: Transitioning A Large-Lecture Course From Summative To Formative Exams, Robert Arens, Brian Osborn, Carmen Trudell

Building Technology Educator's Society

For students and teachers alike exams can be a dreadful experience with both parties left questioning the value of the exercise. Large-lecture courses tend to employ an exam culture that is more focused on expedience than efficacy as the promise of efficient grading often triumphs over the desire to create meaningful learning experiences. Within the Architectural Technology Fundamentals courses at Cal Poly we have found that machine-readable tests, which use multiple-choice and true-false questions, tend to assess students’ understanding of course topics at only the most basic level and are misaligned with our aspiration to fostering students who can integrate ...


Exposed! The Impact Of Structural Materiality On The Design Of Architecture, Terri Boake Jun 2019

Exposed! The Impact Of Structural Materiality On The Design Of Architecture, Terri Boake

Building Technology Educator's Society

There is a formative connection between structural choice and architectural design. Where the term “low hanging fruit” has often been used with reference to critical first choices towards climate responsive sustainable design, a similar approach can be applied to design-thinking when it comes to structural choices. The consideration of the material nature of the primary structure at the conceptual stage of design can allow for improved focus during the design process. This is particularly critical when working with exposed structural systems as the materiality also directly impacts the aesthetics. Exposing a structure requires that the architect be significantly more technically ...


Classroom As Laboratory: Engaging Architecture Students In Hands-On Building Science Research, Gabrielle Brainard, Cristobal Correa Jun 2019

Classroom As Laboratory: Engaging Architecture Students In Hands-On Building Science Research, Gabrielle Brainard, Cristobal Correa

Building Technology Educator's Society

Knowledge of building science – how buildings perform with respect to energy efficiency, durability, comfort, and health – is a key aspect of sustainable architectural design. Although most building science courses are taught in a traditional lecture format, experiential teaching methods have the potential to improve student engagement and comprehension of technical subject matter.

This paper describes a case study of experiential learning in building science education. In Spring, 2018, we conducted a thermal comfort study as part of an integrated design studio at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, NY. We measured temperature and relative humidity in the studio space and asked students ...