Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Architecture Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Vistas, Views, Prospects. Research And Design, Albert Fekete Jan 2019

Vistas, Views, Prospects. Research And Design, Albert Fekete

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The renewal of historic gardens, landscapes and sites has become more common in Eastern and Central European region. The Department of Garden Art and Garden Techniques of the Szent István University, Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design has been dealing with this since 1963, with landscape renewal on landscape, garden and settlement scale, based on scientific research. The more than 50-year experience has already proved the advantages of such “design by research” approach in the garden and landscape renewal processes, with Landscape Architecture being a discipline which has developed from a very practical basis in park and garden design ...


‘Brown’ Is The New ‘Green’: Post-Industrial Sites As Potential In The Development Of The Green Infrastructure On The Riverfront Of Budapest, Hungary, Anna Adorjan, Anna Pecze, Kinga Szilágyi Jan 2019

‘Brown’ Is The New ‘Green’: Post-Industrial Sites As Potential In The Development Of The Green Infrastructure On The Riverfront Of Budapest, Hungary, Anna Adorjan, Anna Pecze, Kinga Szilágyi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In Budapest, Hungary and all-around Europe in the capital cities, the sight of degraded, industrial landscapes in urban areas became usual during the last decades, due to the unexpected growth of cities. In the last 30 years, many sites have gained new functions and have been reused for different purposes, but still, huge areas remained unused and presumably polluted. According to my hypothesis the unutilized areas – especially in the riverside area - could potentially become the part of a new green infrastructure element, which could make the green infrastructure system of Budapest more complete, usable and ecologically valuable.

For this paper ...


The Role Of The Greenways In The Harmonization Of Urban-Rural Relation In Hungary, Edina Dancsokné Fóris, Ágnes Sallay Jan 2016

The Role Of The Greenways In The Harmonization Of Urban-Rural Relation In Hungary, Edina Dancsokné Fóris, Ágnes Sallay

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The decrease in the population of villages and the growth of cities is a global phenomenon, also present in Hungary. In inner peripheries, regions that most often lack cities, the ageing of the population and the emptying of the villages has begun. These regions are uniquely affected by regional development and rural development in terms of both economics and demographics. A significant step in creating cohesion between the advanced urban areas and the declining rural areas is the improvement of infrastructure (Csatári). We believe that greenways, as parts of the networks of infrastructure and green infrastructure, may play a significant ...


Spreading Of Invasive Species In Greenways: A Gis-Based Case Study In Hungary, Peter Szilassi, Dorottya Kitka Jan 2016

Spreading Of Invasive Species In Greenways: A Gis-Based Case Study In Hungary, Peter Szilassi, Dorottya Kitka

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The fast spread of invasive species is leading to a reduction in biodiversity and habitat loss for native species. It is especially important to consider the environmental aspects during greenway planning. Ecological corridors are designed to assure the migration of species between the valuable conservation areas and to reduce the spreading ability of invasive species.

This paper analyses the proportion invasive species on the greenways (ecological corridors) of the Southern Hungarian Great Plain NUTS 2 statistical region, in Hungary. The spreading conditions and dynamics of invasive species were compared inside and outside greenways. The study aims to define the ecological ...


Landscape Indicators In Rural Development, István Valánszki, Ágnes Sallay, Krisztina Filep-Kovács, Sándor Jombach Jan 2016

Landscape Indicators In Rural Development, István Valánszki, Ágnes Sallay, Krisztina Filep-Kovács, Sándor Jombach

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Landscape values and landscape potential are the base of rural development. Long-term and balanced utilization of these is possible through sustainable landscape management. The Hungarian rural regions have very diverse characteristics, that is why properly targeted and specified programs, strategies are needed to develop them in an appropriate way.

Several planners, researchers and authors emphasized that the first step of sustainable landscape management is landscape-function analysis (De Groot et al., 2010; Herman et al., 2014). Before clustering and typification of rural regions based on the levels of the different landscape functions, it is very important to explore the potential relationships ...


Complex Educational Model Project In The Nivegy Valley, Zsuzsanna Mikházi, Edina Dancsokné Fóris Jan 2016

Complex Educational Model Project In The Nivegy Valley, Zsuzsanna Mikházi, Edina Dancsokné Fóris

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The Faculty of Landscape Architecture of the Szent István University (formerly of the Corvinus University of Budapest) places great importance on providing its graduates with designing experience. In order to achieve this, the faculty organize more and more opportunities for professional practice every year. Each of these is usually related to different university subjects.

In the spring 2015, within the framework of the Rural Development subject, we began our involvement with the settlements in and near the Nivegy Valley. This was possible thanks to the good professional relationship between the LAG (Local Action Group) of the Balaton Uplands and our ...


Terroir: Wine, Winery, Landscape, Olga Harea, Mariann Simon Jan 2016

Terroir: Wine, Winery, Landscape, Olga Harea, Mariann Simon

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Wine production has a long history in Hungary, but the system was totally rearranged following the change in the political-economic system. Due to the change in the ownership structure and in the scale of wine production several new wineries were built in the country in the last fifteen years, most of them also representing a high architectural quality.

Parallel with the development of wine tasting culture these buildings had to answer to multiple requirements: they had not only to accommodate to the production but also to represent the firm, and being the part of the new brand. Taste of wine ...


Evaluation Methods Of Urban Trees Along The Danube In Budapest, Ildikó Réka Báthoryné Nagy, Katalin Takács Jan 2016

Evaluation Methods Of Urban Trees Along The Danube In Budapest, Ildikó Réka Báthoryné Nagy, Katalin Takács

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Defined by national Hungarian legislation (National Act 1997. LXXVIII.), the evaluation of urban green spaces is required as part of an urban planning process. Such evaluation includes the analysis of dendrological features. In 2014 the procedure of urban planning regarding the river banks of the Danube at Budapest was started. The development of the Building Code of the river banks was based on numerous basic studies and researches in varying fields. The dendrological evaluation area was on both sides of the Danube River including 465 neighboring real estate lots, and also islands. We participated in a research which was meant ...


Enhancement Of The Role Of Spatial Planning In Climate Change Adaptation By Long Term Modelling Of Land Use Change In Hungary, Krisztián Schneller, Erzsébet Vajdovich Visy, Vilja Vaszócsik Jan 2016

Enhancement Of The Role Of Spatial Planning In Climate Change Adaptation By Long Term Modelling Of Land Use Change In Hungary, Krisztián Schneller, Erzsébet Vajdovich Visy, Vilja Vaszócsik

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The purposeful formation of land use significantly contributes to the moderation of the adverse impact of climate change. Since spatial planning plays a fundamental role in the formation of land use, therefore it is essential to integrate climate adaptation goals into the planning process (Biesbroek, G.R. et al., 2009). Spatial plans primarily assist the achievement of adaptation purposes by the delimitation and protection (primarily against urban sprawl) of areas (as zones, such as ecological corridors) which are important in adaptation and risk prevention. In Hungary at present the spatial planning system already contribute to the above mentioned objectives, but ...


A New Step In Greenway Planning And Practice – The Challenges Of Branding A Cross-Border Greenway In Hungary, János Csapó, Géza Szabó, Zoltán Horváth, Réka Pintér Jan 2016

A New Step In Greenway Planning And Practice – The Challenges Of Branding A Cross-Border Greenway In Hungary, János Csapó, Géza Szabó, Zoltán Horváth, Réka Pintér

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

One of the most recent products of alternative tourism and thematic route development are the greenways in Hungary which were recently launched in 2011. As the authors of this article actively took part in the practical process of the creation and initiation of the Baranya Greenway in 2012, (Szabó, G. and Csapó, J., 2012), in our present article we lay the emphasis on the branding process of a cross-border cooperation program on the Hungarian-Croatian border at the Baranya/Baranja area.

Besides tourism development, the presented initiatives rely on forming a sustainable society and a healthy lifestyle as well where the ...


Landscape Education For Democracy: A Proposal For Building Inclusive Processes Into Spatial Planning Education, Kristin Faurest, Deni Ruggeri Jan 2016

Landscape Education For Democracy: A Proposal For Building Inclusive Processes Into Spatial Planning Education, Kristin Faurest, Deni Ruggeri

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The landscape belongs to everyone. We should all participate in deciding how it is used, and landscape resources should serve all populations regardless of social or economic status. But spatial planning education rarely includes topics such as democratic processes, participatory planning, community-based planning or other topics, and does not fully prepare designers and planners to effectively work in partnership with the communities they serve.

This problem was the inspiration for LED – Landscape Education for Democracy, a new three-year educational programme created and implemented by a consortium and funded by the Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership Programme of the European Commission. The LED ...


Green Infrastructure In Rural Development, Case Study In Hungary, Krisztina Filep-Kovács, Ágnes Sallay, Zsuzsanna Mikházi, Sándor Jombach, Zsolt Szilvácsku, István Valánszki, Géza Gelencsér Jan 2016

Green Infrastructure In Rural Development, Case Study In Hungary, Krisztina Filep-Kovács, Ágnes Sallay, Zsuzsanna Mikházi, Sándor Jombach, Zsolt Szilvácsku, István Valánszki, Géza Gelencsér

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Green infrastructure (GI) planning as a complex, multifunctional tool is appropriate to realize objectives related to nature conservation, rural development, and sustainable agriculture. In a rural region of Hungary, we carried out a project covering wide range of activities: elaboration of new reservoirs, habitat rehabilitation enhancing the ecological stability of the Koppány-creek and suggestions for the improvement of the sustainability and multifunctionality of agricultural production. The pilot area is situated in Koppány Valley that is a hilly landscape rich in natural values located south of the popular tourist destination Lake Balaton and is affected by extreme aging and emigration processes ...


The Maros River And Its Potential For Landscape Development, Albert Fekete, Martin Van Den Toorn Jan 2016

The Maros River And Its Potential For Landscape Development, Albert Fekete, Martin Van Den Toorn

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In this paper we research how the approach of 'greenway planning' could be elaborated in the case of manorial house systems located alongside the Maros (Mures) river in Transylvania. The Maros river is part of the Danube watershed and crosses a large part of Transylvania, roughly from East to West. Certain sections of the river, spanning 876 km from its source to its mouth, can be well differentiated both from a geographic and a social aspect.

First of all we will analyse the historical role of the river in the landscape development of the area in the long run. Not ...


Green For Commons: Paths Of Development In Hungary, Germany And Georgia, Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon, Nino Chachava, Gudrun Nahrendorf, Andrea Malerba, Andrea Pizzato Jan 2016

Green For Commons: Paths Of Development In Hungary, Germany And Georgia, Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon, Nino Chachava, Gudrun Nahrendorf, Andrea Malerba, Andrea Pizzato

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In the past few years public awareness of green spaces in cities has evolved. Rapid urbanization, population growth, expansion of industrial plants, among others, have led to the occupation of land by buildings, roads, contemporary constructions for different purposes. More of the left green spaces are progressively taken away, showing little consideration to the value of human life, the air quality and nature.

Our cities have increasingly become central in the environmental protectionrelated processes, as they represent a focal point of sustainability, and the political and economic strategies of the countries. However, the process of transforming our cities into sustainable ...


On The Possibility Of Extending The European Green Belt To The Hungarian-Romanian Border Region, Zoltán Zakota, Tamás Z. Zakota Jan 2016

On The Possibility Of Extending The European Green Belt To The Hungarian-Romanian Border Region, Zoltán Zakota, Tamás Z. Zakota

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In our present paper we make an attempt to put together some relevant information, based mainly on regional statistics and administrative data, in order to outline a blueprint of a greenway plan for the Hungarian-Romanian border area that could be able to create more opportunities for the sustainable development of the region through the green belt development. The target-area consists of eight counties, four on each side of the common border: Szabolcs- Szatmár-Bereg, Hajdú-Bihar, Békés and Csongrád in Hungary, respectively Satu Mare, Bihor, Arad and Timiș in Romania. Protection of nature and, in general, environment is an important issue because ...


Designation Of Potential Excavation Zones Suitable For Mining - Modelling Different Types Of Land Uses; Minatura2020 Hungarian Case Study (Tállya Region), Zoltán Horváth, Rita Szeiler, Anouk Cormont, Michiel Van Eupen Jan 2016

Designation Of Potential Excavation Zones Suitable For Mining - Modelling Different Types Of Land Uses; Minatura2020 Hungarian Case Study (Tállya Region), Zoltán Horváth, Rita Szeiler, Anouk Cormont, Michiel Van Eupen

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The exploitation of minerals in Europe is an indispensable activity to ensure that the present and future needs of the European society can be met. This means that sufficient access is required to explore and exploit minerals. At the same time the mineral requirements of our society must be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Accordingly, potentially exploitable mineral deposits (known deposits, abandoned mines and historical mining sites) need to be assessed against other land uses, taking into account criteria such as habitats, other environmental concerns, priorities for settlements, etc. Decisions on the ...


The Potential Impact Of Greening As A Directed Land Use On The Landscape Structure, Klaudia Máté, László Kollányi Jan 2016

The Potential Impact Of Greening As A Directed Land Use On The Landscape Structure, Klaudia Máté, László Kollányi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The intensification of agricultural landscapes significantly sped up in the 20th century. The European Union created the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the objective of securing the productivity, the biodiversity and the ecological stability of agricultural landscapes. A new measure in the 2014 CAP Reform is “greening”. Its goal is to support agricultural activities which are beneficial to the climate and environment as well as to protect landscape elements which are important for ecosystems. The impact of this measure on the landscape structure is unpredictable.

In this study, we compare the earlier legislation to the current greening provisions in order ...


The Potential Roles Of Biodiverse Green Roofs In The Extending Urban Green Network, Krisztina Szabó Jan 2016

The Potential Roles Of Biodiverse Green Roofs In The Extending Urban Green Network, Krisztina Szabó

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The role of urban green network is increasingly needed due to urbanization and the growing urban population. The high number of buildings, the different infrastructural developments and the high quantity of covered surface do not allow increase greenery on the ground level; there are few residual spaces that can be turned into green areas. One solution could be the vertical walls and green roofs which can considerably help developing urban green network of the future (Susca et al., 2011). Due to the acute conflicts between high density development and limited land, many European, American and Chinese cities adopted an effective ...


Opportunities For Greenways Through Development Of Ecological And Green Corridor Landscape Planning In Hungary, Attila Csemez, Judit Bárcziné Kapovits Jan 2013

Opportunities For Greenways Through Development Of Ecological And Green Corridor Landscape Planning In Hungary, Attila Csemez, Judit Bárcziné Kapovits

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In the specialist literature on landscape design, greenways are multi-functional routes which optimally have both recreational and ecological functions. The recreational function of greenways is primarily use by pedestrians, cyclists and horse-riders. The ecological role of greenways means that optimally they are part of a given landscape’s ecological system. In the course of our research – taking into account the natural, social and economic conditions, as well as landscape and design precedents – we are seeking answers to questions within the following categories: (1) justifications for the creation of greenways in Hungary; (2) the geographical areas in which greenways may be ...


Greenway Development Possibilities In Hungray; Flood Protection Banks And Abandoned Railway Lines In Greenway Development, Attila Csemez Jan 2010

Greenway Development Possibilities In Hungray; Flood Protection Banks And Abandoned Railway Lines In Greenway Development, Attila Csemez

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenways, as their name suggests, are linear elements. The essence of a greenway is that it connects and separates. A greenway system means a continuous, unbroken connection of green spaces. In Hungary the greenway system could become complete if existing and proposed greenways could be connected at the following locations:

⎯ Along the Danube and Tisza flood prevention banks

⎯ Along main routes

⎯ On both sides of the rivers and smaller streams

⎯ On the edges of settlements

A greenway system would provide ecological harmony and a determining landscape structure for the Carpathian basin, as well as strengthen its visual and landscape aesthetic ...


Visibility Assessment Of The Perenye Windpark Near The Kőszegi Mountain In Hungary, Dóra Drexler, Ágnes Sallay, Sándor Jombach Jan 2010

Visibility Assessment Of The Perenye Windpark Near The Kőszegi Mountain In Hungary, Dóra Drexler, Ágnes Sallay, Sándor Jombach

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The visibility assessment of the Perenye Windpark was commissioned in 2009 by the West Transdanubian Authority for Environmental Protection. The plans of the windpark contained 11 turbines situated in an arable area near the small village of Perenye, south of the scenic Kőszegi Mountain and the Írottkő Nature Park. The height of the planned turbines was 179 meters (160 meters tower plus 19 meters rotor height). Ten of them were planned to have 2 MW energy output and one, which was offered by the investors to the local government, 850 kW.

The main reason for the visibility assessment was the ...


Landscape Planning Aspects Of Municipal Creekside Greenways In Hungary, Ildikó Réka Báthory-Nagy Jan 2010

Landscape Planning Aspects Of Municipal Creekside Greenways In Hungary, Ildikó Réka Báthory-Nagy

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

As a researcher in landscape architecture, I focus on creekside landscapes: their special characteristics, natural and man-governed processes and abilities to recover. The general aim of my research work is to find better landscape planning and design solutions to improve Hungarian creek valleys’ functional, ecological and aesthetic conditions. As a practitioner, besides setting guidelines for restoration, I am engaged in landscape architectural projects focusing on the recreational and ecological development of urban creeksides.

In my present paper I would like to focus on some characteristics of landscape planning that are the elementary determinants of creekside greenways in Hungary. Through an ...


Reviving Of Natural Networks In Hungary, Krisztina Filepné Kovács, Adrienn Egyed Jan 2010

Reviving Of Natural Networks In Hungary, Krisztina Filepné Kovács, Adrienn Egyed

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In the lecture we explore the habitat restoration works in Hungary in general and we are focusing on the area of Hanság where the latest rehabilitation works enhanced the ecologic value of the area reviving the former richness of marshlands. With the reviving of the former landscape values we are making recommendations for the elaboration of Greenway Natural Jewels of Hanság.


From Agronomy To Landscape & Greenway Planning, Julius Gyula Fábos Ph.D., Fasla Jan 2010

From Agronomy To Landscape & Greenway Planning, Julius Gyula Fábos Ph.D., Fasla

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper describes the evolution of my professional career, which parallels the evolution of landscape and greenway planning in the United States and indeed around the world. But prior to the describing this evolution, I felt the need to describe my roots, which led me to become both, a landscape and a greenway planner.

Naturally one can become a planner from any profession, any field. Yet, I felt fortunate to come to it from agronomy, which introduced me well to the “living environment”. As landscape architects we have always modified all planning implementation which may be minor or major changes ...


Angelgreen: Green Network Development Strategy Of The 13th District Of Budapest., Péter Gábor Jan 2010

Angelgreen: Green Network Development Strategy Of The 13th District Of Budapest., Péter Gábor

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The planning of greenways and green networks is relevant not only on regional scale and in rural and suburban areas but also in the scale of settlements or even districts within the cities. The AngelGREEN is the green network development strategy of the 13th district (also called as Angel-land) of Budapest. The strategy has been elaborated in order to help the district’s Environment Management Non-profit Ltd. in its objectives of developing and maintaining the green spaces owned by the District Council. The strategy serves as a framework to determine priorities in the company’s management responsibilities, and it is ...


Central European Greenways – Designing International Corridors Of Sustainable Development, David Murphy, Daniel Mourek Jan 2010

Central European Greenways – Designing International Corridors Of Sustainable Development, David Murphy, Daniel Mourek

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper presents a practitioner’s perspective on Greenways development in the New Member States of the European Union of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Greenways in this region came about as a result of and tool for the development of civil society in these countries after the collapse of communism. Greenways were introduced in Central Europe through direct cooperation with US based initiatives in the early and mid 1990s as part of a wider initiative to promote civic engagement in environmental improvement and decision making in an effort to re-establish a functioning and vibrant civic society ...


A Concept And Case Study Of Ecological Network Planning In The Fertő-Hanság Basin In Hungary, Éva Konkoly-Gyuró, Dezső Nagy Jan 2010

A Concept And Case Study Of Ecological Network Planning In The Fertő-Hanság Basin In Hungary, Éva Konkoly-Gyuró, Dezső Nagy

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The concept of ecological networks has emerged from the landscape planning on the one side and from the landscape ecology on the other. Landscape planning has been seeking to create greenways and green networks for people. Whereas landscape ecology provided the scientific basis for the assessment of landscape structure thus gave the opportunity to turn the nature conservation approach from the protection of isolated nature reserves into a spatial system approach. A systematic analysis and evaluation of the existing ecological network provides a larger context for the habitat preservation, so an opportunity of more efficiency for the nature conservation. However ...


Opportunities For The Development Of Greenways In Hungary, Based On The Example Of The Budavidék Greenway, Judit Bárcziné Kapovits, Ágnes Sallay, Attila Csemez Jan 2010

Opportunities For The Development Of Greenways In Hungary, Based On The Example Of The Budavidék Greenway, Judit Bárcziné Kapovits, Ágnes Sallay, Attila Csemez

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In spring 2007 the BudaVidék (‘Buda region’) Greenway programme was launched by the BudaVidék Greenway Alliance, which is a civil alliance formed through the coming together of associations involved in landscape, environmental protection and community development activities in the Zsámbék Basin. The main goal of the Alliance's work is the designation of a network of routes – also suitable for cyclists – linking the twelve settlements in the Zsámbék Basin. This civil collaboration has set itself the target of organising joint greenway tours, supporting educational initiatives in environmental matters related to the greenway, and encouraging locally produced goods and local service ...


Landscape Transformation At Tourist Resorts Around Lake Balaton, Adrienn Egyed, Zsuzsanna Mikházi Jan 2010

Landscape Transformation At Tourist Resorts Around Lake Balaton, Adrienn Egyed, Zsuzsanna Mikházi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

While a hundred years ago the villages disposed mainly the same functions (working and living functions) for the inhabitants, by now the villages transformed and can offer different functions for the inhabitants and tourists as well. Some of them offer work possibilities or have excellent location for being a living place. Some of them have values that are attractive enough for people for a while, they became a holiday resort. In this essay we examine the landscape transformation of this kind of villages.


Trends Of Landscape Architecture In Hungary In The ‘70s, Eszter Karlócainé Bakay Jan 2010

Trends Of Landscape Architecture In Hungary In The ‘70s, Eszter Karlócainé Bakay

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The history of landscape architecture in the seventies is part of a larger topic which covers the history of Hungarian landscape architecture from the 50-s to the end of Socialist era. The strong political pressure which was so typical in all fields of life in these periods, was determining in landscape architecture as well.

The era has not been researched yet, since it hasn’t been enough long ago to be considered as a history. The parks built at this time are disappearing due to park renovations, alterations or functional changes. These works are not protected yet; the officials of ...