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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Clientelism And Planning In The Informal Settlements Of Developing Democracies, Chandan Deuskar Mar 2019

Clientelism And Planning In The Informal Settlements Of Developing Democracies, Chandan Deuskar

Graduate Student Research (City and Regional Planning)

The informal provision of benefits to the poor in exchange for political support, known as clientelism, often provides access to land and services for the urban poor in informal settlements in developing democracies. This review of multidisciplinary literature finds that while clientelism provides the urban poor with some access to the state, its benefits are often inadequate and inequitable. This kind of informal provision also disincentivizes or interferes with the implementation of formal plans. The literature provides some examples of transitions away from clientelism, but lessons for planners in facilitating such transitions are elusive.


A Study On The Reassessment Of Buffer Zone Management Policy In South Korea, Jungseop Park Jan 2019

A Study On The Reassessment Of Buffer Zone Management Policy In South Korea, Jungseop Park

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In 2000, the South Korean government set up buffer zone system for preserve nationally and locally designated cultural and natural heritage. Even though it effectively preserved historic resources against construction activities, some criticism, such as building height regulations around some types of cultural heritage which does not contain any visible historic resources on the ground, are generated.

Regarding the criticism above, this study focused on the assessment the necessity of building height regulations around the “invisible” cultural heritage. A comparative study of buffer zone policy – UNESCO, U.S. and France - is discussed in the first part of the study. Cases ...


Evaluation Of Comparative Repair Methods For Stone, Wei Luo Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Comparative Repair Methods For Stone, Wei Luo

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Stone masonry, once popular in 19th and early 20th century America, was gradually replaced by concrete and other modern building materials. Many Pennsylvania quarries produced prized local stone such as Pennsylvania Blue Marble, Hummelstown Brownstone, and Chester County Serpentine, all no longer quarried. These materials were used to construct numerous historically significant architecture in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

While material authenticity is one of the guiding philosophies for conservation design, oftentimes compromises must be made for many reasons—cost, availability, compatibility with other materials or structure, schedule, skilled labor, aesthetics and an important one which will be the focus of this ...


Soft Reds And Hard Tans: Developing An Index Of Vulnerability For New Orleans Brick, Justin Lynch Jan 2019

Soft Reds And Hard Tans: Developing An Index Of Vulnerability For New Orleans Brick, Justin Lynch

Theses (Historic Preservation)

One of the challenges that architectural conservators face is how identical masonry materials can behave differently depending upon variation in composition, age, and production technology. This is especially true within the context of New Orleans brickmaking tradition, which relied upon two sources of clay to make bricks in the nineteenth century. Soft-red bricks were made using locally sourced Mississippi River clay, whereas hard tan bricks were made using mud from Lake Pontchartrain. Using multiple physical characterization techniques and performance tests, this study compares the behavior of two groups of seven nineteenth-century soft red and hard tan bricks to show that ...


A Framework For Risk Analysis And Vulnerability Assessment Of The Rubble Masonry At Tuzigoot National Monument, Dorcas Corchado Colón Jan 2019

A Framework For Risk Analysis And Vulnerability Assessment Of The Rubble Masonry At Tuzigoot National Monument, Dorcas Corchado Colón

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Located on the summit of a sandstone and limestone ridge overlooking the Verde River in Clarkdale, Arizona lies a cluster of two to three story masonry Native American ruins known as Tuzigoot National Monument. This thesis focused on Group III, which contains the first pueblo rooms built on the site, still containing historical stabilization material. Despite partial collapse, burial and excavation, these walls have endured. Since excavation in 1933, Tuzigoot has been continuously stabilized reflecting changing attitudes in materials and methods. In light of past and current preservation management, this thesis studied the construction and performance of the rubble wall ...


A Safe House For Orphan Parts An Architectural Proposal For A Us Center For Illicit Antiquities, Lauren Aguilar Jan 2019

A Safe House For Orphan Parts An Architectural Proposal For A Us Center For Illicit Antiquities, Lauren Aguilar

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Though very different institutions, the Met, the Getty, and US Immigration and Customs have a striking similarity in one regard. Each holds unmatched collections of antiquities. They focus efforts on study, acquisition, and object transfer. However, the Met and the Getty are renowned museums and ICE recovers and repatriates black market goods, keeping their collection in several top-secret warehouses. One such warehouse in Queens houses over 2,500 seized artifacts including “a huge stone Buddha from India, terra-cotta horsemen from China, reliefs from Iraq, Syria, and Yemen” Unlike the carefully curated collections at institutions like the Met, these pieces are ...


A Conservation Assessment Of The Architectural Wood Of The Original Dining Room At Taliesin West, Mia Maloney Jan 2019

A Conservation Assessment Of The Architectural Wood Of The Original Dining Room At Taliesin West, Mia Maloney

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Taliesin West, located in Scottsdale, Arizona, was Frank Lloyd Wright’s winter home and studio from 1938 until his death in 1959. Through the Taliesin Fellowship, Wright trained hundreds of apprentices who helped him build and continually alter the site. Taliesin West has continued to evolve since 1959 and currently operates as both a school and museum. This thesis focuses on the conservation of the architectural wood in the Original Dining Room, presently referred to as the Board Room. The Original Dining Room was one of the first structures built at the site and functioned as the Taliesin Fellowship’s ...


The Current Relocation Practice In Chinese Historic Districts From The Perspective Of Residents' Willingness To Relocate: A Case Study Of Baitasi Historic District, Beijing, Ran Wei Jan 2019

The Current Relocation Practice In Chinese Historic Districts From The Perspective Of Residents' Willingness To Relocate: A Case Study Of Baitasi Historic District, Beijing, Ran Wei

Theses (Historic Preservation)

After years of trials, China has been shifting the model of historic district regeneration from massive destruction and construction to incremental and small-scale preservation, including changing the complete and involuntary relocation of original residents to negotiable and partial relocation. During the process, residents’ willingness to relocate is important for the decision-makers to consider who is likely to move and who is likely to stay. To investigate the residents’ willingness to relocate for the purpose of improving the relocation and regeneration practice in Chinese historic districts, this research uses Baitasi Historic District in Beijing as an example and focuses on those ...


Reconfiguring The Republic Dream: New Equitable Housing Types In Post-Socialist Tbilisi, Irena Wight Jan 2019

Reconfiguring The Republic Dream: New Equitable Housing Types In Post-Socialist Tbilisi, Irena Wight

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Post-socialist Tbilisi is a city with a rich yet rapidly disappearing built heritage. The city’s long and layered histories as well as its location at the crossroads between Asia and Europe have shaped its urban and architectural forms to reflect its multicultural and cosmopolitan character. Traditional building types demonstrate the confluence of cultures and the inhabitants’ open social ideals, as gradients of privacy blend between private, public, and semiprivate. The Art Nouveau courtyard house embodies these values as its internal composition reveals that the shift toward Art Nouveau accompanied a broader redesign of domestic space at this moment. Further ...


“Where Shall We Go?”: Race, Displacement, And Preservation At Slabtown And Yorktown Battlefield, Jacob Torkelson Jan 2019

“Where Shall We Go?”: Race, Displacement, And Preservation At Slabtown And Yorktown Battlefield, Jacob Torkelson

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Slabtown, a community descended from refugee slaves and freedpersons, existed at Yorktown Battlefield from the 1860s until the 1970s when it was intentionally demolished by the National Park Service. Colonial National Historical Park edited out Slabtown’s legacy, wholly disregarding the contributions of African Americans to the heritage of Yorktown Battlefield. Why was this decision made? What happened to Slabtown? And what does this mean for the future of Yorktown Battlefield? This thesis advocates for the preservation of landscape traces in Slabtown, and seeks to prove that the voids and absence of buildings are a powerful preservation and interpretive resource ...


Habits Of Housing Policy: The Role Of Historical Decision-Making Tendencies In Shaping Contemporary Philadelphia Policy, Katherine Randall Jan 2019

Habits Of Housing Policy: The Role Of Historical Decision-Making Tendencies In Shaping Contemporary Philadelphia Policy, Katherine Randall

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis assesses the extent to which historic decision-making tendencies influence contemporary Philadelphia policy. Philadelphia has a distinctive stock of rowhouses built throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which today provides more housing units than are needed by the population. The excess housing stock means that Philadelphia could invest in reuse rather than new construction to meet demand for affordable rental housing, a path which avoids demolition and displacement in communities which have faced disinvestment in the past. However, current Philadelphia policy appears to favor new construction of housing.

Using primary and secondary sources, this thesis examines patterns in past ...


Private Preservation: Using Garden City-Inspired Legal Tools To Preserve Communities And Heritage, Santiago Preciado Ovalle Jan 2019

Private Preservation: Using Garden City-Inspired Legal Tools To Preserve Communities And Heritage, Santiago Preciado Ovalle

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis looks at the legacy of Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City vision, and analyzes how a reappropriation of privatism and communal land ownership and management can work to preserve communities and heritage as an alternative set of tools to public preservation. Using the law of property to explore private legal and economic preservation tools, this thesis explores the precedents of private governments and the use of restrictive covenants as tools for private preservation. Using the legacy of communal land ownership and management, the thesis explores the use of land trusts and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs), and their potential ...


Permanent Impermanence: Preserving The Garden Room At Frank Lloyd Wright's Desert Camp, Taliesin West, Ashley Losco Jan 2019

Permanent Impermanence: Preserving The Garden Room At Frank Lloyd Wright's Desert Camp, Taliesin West, Ashley Losco

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since Taliesin West is both an active architectural school and historic site, this thesis study explores the use of “progressive authenticity” in the preservation of the Garden Room at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin West. Progressive authenticity is a preservation theory that focuses on the values and cultural heritage of a site, known as the intangible heritage, as well as the physical historic fabric, the tangible heritage. Progressive authenticity argues that every layer of change, including new changes, is part of a historic site’s identity. From construction in 1939 to today, every layer of change by Wright, his wife ...


Changing Landscapes: Redefining Preservation For Legacy Neighborhoods, Kaitlyn Levesque Jan 2019

Changing Landscapes: Redefining Preservation For Legacy Neighborhoods, Kaitlyn Levesque

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis offers a critical examination of traditional preservation policies and practices, which have long prioritized the physical form and fabric of heritage places over other values. This disproportionately favors dominant cultures in historic narratives and perpetuates harmfully narrow definitions of significance, authenticity, and integrity.

With a specific focus on legacy neighborhoods, urban areas suffering from sustained disinvestment and wide-spread vacancy, a more equitable preservation process is proposed. One which views the preservation of a neighborhood’s existing social fabric (its health, culture, and connectivity) as essential to the that of its physical fabric (both built and natural). Grounded in ...


An Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Replacement Reserve Studies On The Stewardship Of Historic Houses Of Worship, Allison King Jan 2019

An Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Replacement Reserve Studies On The Stewardship Of Historic Houses Of Worship, Allison King

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Reserve studies are a facilities maintenance planning tool created by the common interest development industry in the United States that could be a useful tool for heritage site managers to financially plan for maintenance and repairs. Unexpected building related costs can be a threat to the financial stability of religious organizations and other types of nonprofits housed in historic buildings because these organizations require lead time to raise funds. Reserve studies could be a useful tool for site managers to financially prepare plan for repairs and generate realistic reserves to cover future expenditures. Reserve study reports include a physical assessment ...


Form Regulation To Address New Construction In Historic Districts, Meredith Johnson Jan 2019

Form Regulation To Address New Construction In Historic Districts, Meredith Johnson

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis will evaluate several tools that cities are currently using to regulate the form of new construction, large alterations, and additions in designated historic areas. A number of tools are available to achieve this type of regulation, but the most popular tools tend to be place-specific design guidelines derived from the study of a historic district, associated with an overlay designation established by the city’s zoning code. Throughout this thesis, this type of regulation will be referred to as “traditional tools.” “Non-traditional tools,” as used herein, include things like form-based codes or neighborhood conservation districts. These are tools ...


A Performance Evaluation Of Amended Stabilization Mortars At Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, Caroline Dickensheets Jan 2019

A Performance Evaluation Of Amended Stabilization Mortars At Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, Caroline Dickensheets

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Earthen mortars are commonly amended to display ‘improved’ performance and weathering properties than unamended soil mortars. In an effort to make more lasting repairs, the National Park Service (NPS) has used amended earthen mortars on their historic structures since the 19th century. These interventions have displayed various levels of compatibility with original masonry material. One such amendment, the acrylic emulsion Rhoplex™ E-330, has been used in setting and pointing mortars for the conservation of ruin sites at multiple National Parks since the 1970s. This paper focus on conservation repair mortars, specifically the durability and performance of amended earthen mortars at ...


Hacking Suburbia: An Architect's Reconsideration Of The Home, Lillian Candela Jan 2019

Hacking Suburbia: An Architect's Reconsideration Of The Home, Lillian Candela

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Beginning with the development of pattern books and their popularization in the 19th century, architects have struggled to determine their role in the homebuilding industry and contributing to a tension between architects, homebuilders and consumers. During the rise of pattern books, architects originally marketed themselves as ‘tastemakers’, but through the provision of patterns they became further circumscribed from the mass-produced housing market. Taste was no longer something that could be exclusively bought from an architect and in the last decade of the 20th century, mass-produced suburbs transitioned to being designed via online design tools offered by large homebuilder companies. Hacking ...


Managing Community Murals In An Urban Preservation Framework, Margaret Back Jan 2019

Managing Community Murals In An Urban Preservation Framework, Margaret Back

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since their arrival in the 1960s, community murals have grown from grass roots efforts to beautify neighborhoods and assert community identity into artistically innovative expressions of injustices of the communities they serve. As murals increasingly appear in cities across the country, almost no guidelines exist for their management and care nor their relationship with existing cultural resource management practices. This thesis examines how community mural programs interact with other public and private entities to achieve preservation-oriented management practices. It explores the current policies and practices of three east coast community organizations, The Baltimore Mural Program, Mural Arts Philadelphia, and the ...


Stoneleigh As A Case Study In Architectural And Land Preservation, Anne Albert Jan 2019

Stoneleigh As A Case Study In Architectural And Land Preservation, Anne Albert

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis examines Stoneleigh, a recently preserved historic landscape garden and Tudor Revival House in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania. An eminent domain legal challenge threatened the permanent protection of this estate, which was set through Façade and Conservation Easements. John and Chara Haas, Stoneleigh’s last private owners recognized the property’s naturalistic values and created a Conservation Easement for the property with Natural Lands. Natural Lands, a region-wide land trust serving Southern New Jersey and Southeastern Pennsylvania, owns Stoneleigh. This land trust created a facade easement for Stoneleigh’s grand house. The Lower Merion Conservancy and the Preservation Alliance ...


“Eminent Good Sense?:” Using Eminent Domain To Curtail Demolition By Neglect, Sarah Mchale Scott Jan 2019

“Eminent Good Sense?:” Using Eminent Domain To Curtail Demolition By Neglect, Sarah Mchale Scott

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Demolition by neglect is a significant concern in many communities with historically-, architecturally-, and culturally-significant buildings; however, it is challenging to prevent and even more challenging to stop once it has begun. An unlikely, but promising, alternative tool to curtail demolition by neglect is eminent domain, government’s authority to take private property for public use. This thesis examines the legal justifications for using eminent domain to stop the destructive practice of historic property abandonment and analyzes its effectiveness in promoting the rehabilitation and reuse of these properties.

A key component of this study is the examination of case studies ...


Authenticity Of The Light Environment Of The Pennsylvania Academy Of The Fine Arts, Jeong Eun Pae Jan 2019

Authenticity Of The Light Environment Of The Pennsylvania Academy Of The Fine Arts, Jeong Eun Pae

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Daylight is one of the essential elements in the human experience of architectural space, and this is especially the case with the historic buildings that predate the wide-spread use of electric light. With a historic building, the architect’s original design intent for daylighting may be diminished by a variety of factors: environmental context, replacement of glazing material, soiling, window treatments, introduction of artificial light, interventions for the improvement of energy efficiency, and removal or abandonment of external shading devices such as shutters. By operating computational simulation of the indoor daylight environment on a chosen historic building, the Pennsylvania Academy ...


Wall Assembly Deterioration: Asbestos-Cement, Modernism, And Panel Construction, Kallie Kothmann Jan 2019

Wall Assembly Deterioration: Asbestos-Cement, Modernism, And Panel Construction, Kallie Kothmann

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Asbestos-fiber reinforced cement panelboards were a common and cost-effective means of making a building fire-resistant in the early twentieth century and fall under the purview of preservation and conservation disciplines by virtue of their period of use. However, due to the potential health and legal implications of deteriorating asbestos-containing products, conservation dilemmas arise when these products are involved. This thesis discusses the ways in which understanding asbestos-cement panelized wall systems can help inform their potential deterioration mechanisms, leading to treatment options and recommendations. The focus is exterior asbestos-cement panels installed in a building as parts of a modular assembly because ...


Seasons Fall 2018 Volume 47 Number 3, Leslie Crane, Pamela Olshefski, Jason Lubar, Anthony S. Aiello, Susan Crane Oct 2018

Seasons Fall 2018 Volume 47 Number 3, Leslie Crane, Pamela Olshefski, Jason Lubar, Anthony S. Aiello, Susan Crane

Seasons Newsletter

Highlights :

  • Thompson-Morris Plot Restoration Complete
  • Botany for Beginners
  • Preserving Our Tree Canopy
  • Three Great Native Trees
  • ArbNet Accreditation


Development Of A Methodology For Fast Optimization Of Building Retrofit And Decision Making Support, Pengyuan Shen Jan 2018

Development Of A Methodology For Fast Optimization Of Building Retrofit And Decision Making Support, Pengyuan Shen

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The condition of current building stock in the United States raises the question of whether the energy performance of existing buildings can ever be environmentally sustainable. In the United States, buildings accounted for 39% of total energy consumption and 72% of total electricity consumption (USEPA 2009). In addition, current building energy use is projected to increase by 1.7% annually until 2025 (J.D. Ryan 2004). The great potential for energy reduction in existing buildings has created opportunities in building energy retrofit projects (Noris et al. 2013). A building renovation project must not only be affordable, taking into account factors ...


The New Hope Experiment: An Investigation And Conservation Plan For The Antonin And Noémi Raymond Farm, Sara Gdula Jan 2018

The New Hope Experiment: An Investigation And Conservation Plan For The Antonin And Noémi Raymond Farm, Sara Gdula

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis is the first investigation of the material fabric of the Raymond Farm Center for Living Arts and Design, a 1730s Quaker fieldstone farm house located in New Hope, PA that was synthesized with Japanese and Modernist elements by the architect/designer couple Antonin and Noémi Raymond in 1939. After nearly two decades of successful practice in Japan becoming some of the main proponents for modern architecture, the Raymonds returned to America in 1938 and purchased the 150-acre farm. In their renovations, they synthesized the Quaker architectural elements with cedar panels, sliding fusuma doors and shoji screens among other ...


Great Adaptations: Shaping The Future Of Historic Preservation In Philadelphia Through An Adaptive Reuse Ordinance, Violette Harrington Levy Jan 2018

Great Adaptations: Shaping The Future Of Historic Preservation In Philadelphia Through An Adaptive Reuse Ordinance, Violette Harrington Levy

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Widespread vacancy and long-term disinvestment in neighborhoods across the City of Philadelphia have left historic preservation efforts and opportunities at a crossroads. The properties currently listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places represent only a small fraction of the city’s built fabric that is eligible for such recognition. Therefore, it is crucial for the City of Philadelphia to look towards the future, and develop a strategy that will encourage more opportunities for historic preservation to take place. This thesis asserts that Philadelphia would benefit from enacting an Adaptive Reuse Ordinance, which would both allow for and encourage expanded ...


Preserving Under Triple Dilemmas: Study On The Jinyang National Archaeological Site Park, Zhongpei Qin Jan 2018

Preserving Under Triple Dilemmas: Study On The Jinyang National Archaeological Site Park, Zhongpei Qin

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis introduces a new preservation type in China — the National Archaeological Site Park (abbreviated as NASP). With a special concern on the Jinyang NASP, this study summarizes the historical significance of the Jinyang archaeological site and reveals the mounting threatens to the site, which is posted by the massive urbanization and the aggressive developmental strategy prompted by the local leader, Mayor Geng.

Taking the Jinyang site and Mayor Geng as an example, this research explores the complicated issues residing in the preservation fields of China. Viewing from the dimension of government, society and individual respectively, the author argues that ...


Replicating The Palette From Pierre-Franҫois Tingry’S The Painter’S And Colourman’S Complete Guide, Kelsey Britt Jan 2018

Replicating The Palette From Pierre-Franҫois Tingry’S The Painter’S And Colourman’S Complete Guide, Kelsey Britt

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis addresses the replication of house paints with period methods and materials as described in the third edition of Pierre-Franҫois Tingry’s (1743-1821) treatise, The Painter’s and Colourman’s Complete Guide (1830). Drawing on documentary sources, conservation and preservation literature, and previous examples of paint replication, it examines the historic materials and methods of preparing oil-based house paints and explores possibilities of accurate paint replication. It also considers paint treatises as an important source of information for understanding historic paints and discusses the history of paint replication in the U.S., including the current interest in replicating historic ...


The Terrible Doubt Of Appearances - The Walt Whitman House And Inclusive Interpretation, John Giganti Jan 2018

The Terrible Doubt Of Appearances - The Walt Whitman House And Inclusive Interpretation, John Giganti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The Historic Preservation community has prioritized inclusive interpretation of historic sites, but this shift has also presented new challenges. Meanwhile, mainstream historians have downplayed lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) history by casting doubt on sexual identity as a historical phenomenon before the late nineteenth century. Starting with the premise that non-normative sexual practices also constitute LGBTQ heritage before the modern era, that it is a legitimate subset of cultural heritage, and that social stigmatism has suppressed its presence in the historical record, this thesis aims to challenge traditional interpretation. Preservation can open historical interpretation to LGBTQ heritage by ...