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Articles 61 - 90 of 2367

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Contradicting Knowledge Map Of Greenways: A Comparative Analysis Based On English And Chinese Literature, Nannan Zhao, Zheng Liu Jan 2019

Contradicting Knowledge Map Of Greenways: A Comparative Analysis Based On English And Chinese Literature, Nannan Zhao, Zheng Liu

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenway is a flexible concept with diverse forms in different contexts. Recently in China, greenways have achieved rapid growth and become national policy. The widely implemented greenways also led to the first national document on greenway planning and design, Guidance of Greenway Planning and Design, which was issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural development. However, there have been two distinct perceptions of greenways in existing Chinese literature. On the one hand, some researchers argue that greenways show strategic values in providing social integration and economic growth. On the other hand, many local scholars and officials criticize that there ...


A Study On Community Greenways Of Haizhu In Guangzhou From The Perspective Of Everyday Urbanism, Wenxiu Chi, Guangsi Lin Jan 2019

A Study On Community Greenways Of Haizhu In Guangzhou From The Perspective Of Everyday Urbanism, Wenxiu Chi, Guangsi Lin

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The greenway has become more and more popular all around the world and greenway construction in China is represented by Guangdong Province. As a type of greenway in Guangzhou, the community greenway refers to greenways that connect community parks, pocket parks and green spaces, mainly serving nearby communities. However, whether the community greenways match the daily urban life of the citizens has not been given enough attention within a few years after the completion.

We aim to analyze whether the top-down strategy matches the daily life of residents, from the perspective of everyday urbanism. We studied the case of Changgang ...


New Results In Surveying Landscape Character And Urban Green Areas, Zsuzsanna Illyés, Zsófia Földi, Dalma Varga Jan 2019

New Results In Surveying Landscape Character And Urban Green Areas, Zsuzsanna Illyés, Zsófia Földi, Dalma Varga

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In the framework of the project “KEHOP-4.3.0-15-2016-00001”, we had the opportunity to research the particularities of urban spatial structure. The aim of the research was to define the influencing role and parameters of the urban space with regards to the landscape character. Within the research topic, we paid accentuated attention to the role of green areas in the settlements. We attempted to characterize the types of the settlements’ green space system as a supplement to the above-mentioned research and analyze in five settlements.

The results show that:

  • there is significant dispersion in the field of urban space; we ...


On The Coastline: The Genesis Of Green Infrastructure Towards A Future Sustainable Landscape For The City Of Maputo, Mozambique, Ana Beja Da Costa, Luis Ribeiro Jan 2019

On The Coastline: The Genesis Of Green Infrastructure Towards A Future Sustainable Landscape For The City Of Maputo, Mozambique, Ana Beja Da Costa, Luis Ribeiro

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Cities in Africa, where the most remarkable forthcoming developments in the overall pattern of urbanization are expected, and quite notably in Sub-Saharan cities such as Maputo, experience accelerating population increases that stress urban infrastructures beyond capacity, and increase pressure on existent valuable ecosystems. In the city’s coastal plains, the recently constructed Maputo ring road and Katembe bridge are drawing urban development towards the last stretch of vacant land of the Municipality, compromising the flood plains and mangrove ecosystems.

This paper aims to refine the planning discourse by systematizing urban strategies associated to green infrastructure functions, having mangrove wetlands as ...


Imparting Olmsted’S Legacy Abroad: An Exhibition Series In Beijing, China, Yanhong Tang, Jack Ahern Jan 2019

Imparting Olmsted’S Legacy Abroad: An Exhibition Series In Beijing, China, Yanhong Tang, Jack Ahern

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In the first integrated-exhibition of its kind, our team of Chinese landscape architects and American scholars showcased the influence and impact of Frederick Law Olmsted’s work on the American landscape through a three-month Exhibition, a Symposium and Reference Book launch at Beijing’s National Museum of Chinese Gardens and Landscape Architecture. The Exhibition featured a meticulously curated collection of Olmsted’s most significant works, organized into six distinct thematic sections spread over 6500 square-feet. In tandem with the Exhibition was a Symposium that assembled leading Chinese landscape architects, government officials and scholars, and a 230-page Chinese-English Resource Book "Designing ...


Mapping And Assessment Of The Urban Heat Island In Zhengzhou City, Huawei Li, Guifang Wang, Guohang Tian, Sándor Jombach Jan 2019

Mapping And Assessment Of The Urban Heat Island In Zhengzhou City, Huawei Li, Guifang Wang, Guohang Tian, Sándor Jombach

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The rapid urbanization of Chinese cities has resulted in significant effects to the urban environment and to urban ecological networks. Zhengzhou city, the capital city of Henan province in central China, is characterized by a warm climate and four distinctive seasons, with a dry spring, and a hot and rainy summer. Based on satellite images, we analyzed land surface temperature (LST) and prepared a further assessment. Using LST data, we analyzed the urban heat island (UHI) and its relationship to green space, in order to make suggestions for future urban planning. The results show that urban heat island exists in ...


Building Connections To The Minute Man National Historic Park: Greenway Planning And Cultural Landscape Design, Robert L. Ryan, Theodore S. Eisenman Jan 2019

Building Connections To The Minute Man National Historic Park: Greenway Planning And Cultural Landscape Design, Robert L. Ryan, Theodore S. Eisenman

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The Minute Man National Historic Park (NHP) in Massachusetts commemorates the Battle of Lexington and Concord (1775) that began the American Revolution. The National Park created in 1959 seeks to interpret the battle and restore the agricultural landscapes of the revolutionary period. The Park is situated within the larger Freedom’s Way National Heritage Area (FWNHA) that was designated in 2009 to preserve the extensive historic cultural resources of the region, including such gems as Thoreau’s Walden Pond.

Unfortunately, the Minute Man NHP is divided into four units and bisected by a busy state highway that makes wayfinding challenging ...


Vistas, Views, Prospects. Research And Design, Albert Fekete Jan 2019

Vistas, Views, Prospects. Research And Design, Albert Fekete

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The renewal of historic gardens, landscapes and sites has become more common in Eastern and Central European region. The Department of Garden Art and Garden Techniques of the Szent István University, Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design has been dealing with this since 1963, with landscape renewal on landscape, garden and settlement scale, based on scientific research. The more than 50-year experience has already proved the advantages of such “design by research” approach in the garden and landscape renewal processes, with Landscape Architecture being a discipline which has developed from a very practical basis in park and garden design ...


Perceptions Of The “New Urban Greenways” In The Pearl River Delta, China, Zheng Liu Jan 2019

Perceptions Of The “New Urban Greenways” In The Pearl River Delta, China, Zheng Liu

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) greenways are the first regional greenway network in China, which has been seen as the pilot greenway project to the other provinces and cities. The PRD greenways also resulted in continuous debates on their forms and functions. Some researchers argue that the PRD greenways show great value in promoting economic development and urban-rural integration, while some criticize that the PRD greenways have accomplished little ecological benefits that were planned in the early stages. However, most of the debates exist among key actors or researchers, while public perception of greenways is overlooked. Public perception could not ...


"City In The Park,” Greenway Network Concept Of High-Density Cities: Adaptation Of Singapore Park Connector Network In Chinese Cities, Guifang Wang, Huawei Li, Yang Yang, Sándor Jombach, Guohang Tian Jan 2019

"City In The Park,” Greenway Network Concept Of High-Density Cities: Adaptation Of Singapore Park Connector Network In Chinese Cities, Guifang Wang, Huawei Li, Yang Yang, Sándor Jombach, Guohang Tian

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper uses the “Park Connector Network” (PCN) as a model, to analyze Singapore’s experience and to cope with the dramatic increase in population and urbanization, and then to apply this experience to Chinese high-density cities. The research goal is to provide guidance for the adaptation of “City in the Park” in China and the construction of high-density urban green space systems. The concept of “City in the Park” that was born in 2018 in China can be related directly to the “Park Connector Network” model.


Challenges Of Metropolitan Scale Green Infrastructure: The Sydney Green Grid, Catherine B. Evans Jan 2019

Challenges Of Metropolitan Scale Green Infrastructure: The Sydney Green Grid, Catherine B. Evans

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In 2017, the Government Architect of New South Wales launched a draft policy known as Greener Places (Government Architect NSW 2017a). The new policy is underpinned by the Sydney Green Grid (SGG), an initiative pitched as transformative in its power to promote sustainable development, improve connectivity and enhance green infrastructure (GI) networks across the metropolitan region and the state (Government Architect NSW 2017b). How successful will the SGG be in delivering “greener places” for urban areas across the state?

This paper exams the claims of the transformative power of the SGG with a focus on two related objectives. First, because ...


Greenway Planning Of Guangdong Province, Zhou Lu, Bing Wu, Xiaoguang Liu, Yuanxiang Wu Jan 2019

Greenway Planning Of Guangdong Province, Zhou Lu, Bing Wu, Xiaoguang Liu, Yuanxiang Wu

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Guangdong Province is located in the southernmost region of mainland China with a total area of 180,000 square kilometers. The GDP ranks first in China, and the economic aggregate accounts for 1/8 of China’s total. As the economic development continues, the fragmentation of ecological land is becoming more dangerous. To solve this problem, the local government organized the master planning of environmental protection. The provincial greenway planning (also called ecological corridor) proposed in this paper is an essential part of it. The total length of planned greenways in Guangdong Province is 2,836 kilometers, and its primary ...


Greenways For Climate Adaptation: Avoiding The ‘Green Paradox’ While Improving Urban Resiliency, Jacobien F. Kuiper, Elisabeth Hamin Infield Jan 2019

Greenways For Climate Adaptation: Avoiding The ‘Green Paradox’ While Improving Urban Resiliency, Jacobien F. Kuiper, Elisabeth Hamin Infield

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenway planning and design is an important approach to climate adaptation in urban areas. In this paper we bring together literature on green gentrification, climate adaptation, and equity in an early exploration of equity issues specific to urban greenways for climate adaptation (‘adaptation-greenways’). Similar to environmental risks and green space access, impacts of climate change are distributed unevenly across urban space. Climate-vulnerable communities are often minority- and lower-income neighborhoods. Greenways can redress existing inequities (‘pre-equity issues’) by providing green space access and climate adaptation benefits in vulnerable communities. Recent projects demonstrate that greenways, while redressing existing inequities, can introduce new ...


Greenness Indicator For Spatial And Settlement Planning Based On Ndvi And Lai Indicators, Laszlo Kollányi, Klaudia Máté, Viola Prohászka, Edina D. Fóris, Ágnes Sallay Jan 2019

Greenness Indicator For Spatial And Settlement Planning Based On Ndvi And Lai Indicators, Laszlo Kollányi, Klaudia Máté, Viola Prohászka, Edina D. Fóris, Ágnes Sallay

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In the international practice of green infrastructure research, many indicators have been developed to measure the social functions, naturalness, the role of the urban climate, interconnection, networking, multifunctionality, and ecosystem services. In 2007, an indicator of biological activity value (BA) was introduced into the Hungarian town planning practice and legislation, which shows the intensity of green areas in areas to be built and is the basis for counting land use changes of settlements. However, the actual biomass, which can be measured by remote sensing devices, has not yet been considered in determining the indicator values. The main purpose of this ...


‘Brown’ Is The New ‘Green’: Post-Industrial Sites As Potential In The Development Of The Green Infrastructure On The Riverfront Of Budapest, Hungary, Anna Adorjan, Anna Pecze, Kinga Szilágyi Jan 2019

‘Brown’ Is The New ‘Green’: Post-Industrial Sites As Potential In The Development Of The Green Infrastructure On The Riverfront Of Budapest, Hungary, Anna Adorjan, Anna Pecze, Kinga Szilágyi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In Budapest, Hungary and all-around Europe in the capital cities, the sight of degraded, industrial landscapes in urban areas became usual during the last decades, due to the unexpected growth of cities. In the last 30 years, many sites have gained new functions and have been reused for different purposes, but still, huge areas remained unused and presumably polluted. According to my hypothesis the unutilized areas – especially in the riverside area - could potentially become the part of a new green infrastructure element, which could make the green infrastructure system of Budapest more complete, usable and ecologically valuable.

For this paper ...


Greenway Exploration In The Satellite Jungle: Discovery Of Urban And Rural Green Network With Satellite Image Analysis In Hungary, Sándor Jombach, Huawei Li, Guifang Wang, István Valánszki, Krisztina F. Kovács Jan 2019

Greenway Exploration In The Satellite Jungle: Discovery Of Urban And Rural Green Network With Satellite Image Analysis In Hungary, Sándor Jombach, Huawei Li, Guifang Wang, István Valánszki, Krisztina F. Kovács

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Over the last few decades of growing data production in the field of remote sensing and GIS, we have experienced a rapid development of methods and tools in green network analysis. A series of journal articles, methodological and technical guidelines describe how to map green system based on aerial photography and satellite imagery. Many studies stress that green networks have a climatic conditioning role and outstanding ecological significance in landscapes. Environmental agreements and sustainability aspects emphasize the need for mapping and managing green infrastructure in urban and rural landscapes. The usual question is: What are the elements of green infrastructure ...


Palermo, Italy: The Coast Road, Monica Manfredi Jan 2019

Palermo, Italy: The Coast Road, Monica Manfredi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper proposes a re-reading of the work of Roberto Collovà dedicated to Palermo and its coastline. It interprets, in a perspective paper, the arguments contained in his research as suggestions for the construction of landscape research to condition, through their appearance, a new way to see and interpret places and their potential.

Rereading his studies, his drawings and his observations suggests the construction of a method of recognition of the existence of a landscape, in this case of a greenway and its potential, within an existing urban fabric. The historical center, the fragments of urban spaces, and the fragments ...


Identifying And Classifying, Quantifying And Visualizing Green Infrastructure Via Urban Transects In Rome, Italy And Sydney, Australia, Simon J. Kilbane, Daniele La Rosa Jan 2019

Identifying And Classifying, Quantifying And Visualizing Green Infrastructure Via Urban Transects In Rome, Italy And Sydney, Australia, Simon J. Kilbane, Daniele La Rosa

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Green Infrastructure is increasingly recognised as an approach to deliver a wide-ranging set of ecosystem services in cities and to operationalize concepts of urban resilience through the better delivery of urban planning, water sensitive urban design and a broad diversity of open space types. This paper argues that the first step in the delivery of effective Green Infrastructure planning and hence ecosystem services is the identification, visualisation and calculus of the full spectrum of existing open space types within urban contexts. To test this idea two case study cities – Rome and Sydney – were selected for their differing geographical origins and ...


Recognizing Greenway Network For Quantifying Students Experience On Campus-Based Universities: Assessing The Campus Outdoor Spaces At San Diego State University, Mohammed Gabr, Hisham Elkadi, Claudia Trillo Jan 2019

Recognizing Greenway Network For Quantifying Students Experience On Campus-Based Universities: Assessing The Campus Outdoor Spaces At San Diego State University, Mohammed Gabr, Hisham Elkadi, Claudia Trillo

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper evaluates the potential of creating a green infrastructure – more specifically, an urban greenway – and its contribution the students’ campus experience, with emphasis on the outdoor university activities. To achieve best value for money – particularly in the current financial climate, with severe budget cuts constraining universities – justifying investments on campus outdoor spaces such as greenways, relies on a clear demonstration of their link to the overall success of the campus. Attempts of quantify the benefits from investments on such spaces are challenged by the scarcity of studies on the relationship between students’ experience and design (and related cost) of ...


Waterways To Greenways: A Case Study In Shangjie, Zhengzhou, Henan, China, Li Zhang, Xiaohua Liu, Yuewu Xiang, Yanliang Kuang, Junjie Li, Zhenying Shan, Suyun Li, Qianying Lu, Yan Guo, Jian Zhou, Xi Long, Shiyu Zhongzhu, Yihong Chen, Zhaohuan Li, Fengli Cao, Jinxiu He, Yiyu Wang Jan 2019

Waterways To Greenways: A Case Study In Shangjie, Zhengzhou, Henan, China, Li Zhang, Xiaohua Liu, Yuewu Xiang, Yanliang Kuang, Junjie Li, Zhenying Shan, Suyun Li, Qianying Lu, Yan Guo, Jian Zhou, Xi Long, Shiyu Zhongzhu, Yihong Chen, Zhaohuan Li, Fengli Cao, Jinxiu He, Yiyu Wang

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This case study introduces how we used a water sensitive approach to plan a storm water and sponge city project, which expanded into a holistic green infrastructure project. The project is in the Shangjie district in city of Zhengzhou, Henan China. The whole site is 61.16 km² including several waterways. The city is expanding into areas that were previously agricultural. Developers and city both desire to improve the ecological value of the city to boost the economic growth of the Shangjie district.

The main goal for the client is to transform the existing industrial city into a more resilient ...


Greenways As Indigenous Cultural Pathways: Healing Landscape And Peoples One Step At A Time In The South West Of Western Australia, Simon J. Kilbane Jan 2019

Greenways As Indigenous Cultural Pathways: Healing Landscape And Peoples One Step At A Time In The South West Of Western Australia, Simon J. Kilbane

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The South West of Western Australia (SWWA) is widely known as one of the world’s most biodiverse regions and a recognised biodiversity hotspot. However, since European colonisation approximately 200 years ago, this landscape has been cleared, fragmented and degraded at large and small scales, a problem magnified by being one of the planet’s most vulnerable locations to climate change. This region also hosts one of the world’s longest continuous cultures, the Nyungar people, who have lived in the SWWA for at least 38,000 years. However following colonisation Nyungar land management practices – that once connected the region ...


Cultural Ecosystem Services And Local Identity – A Ppgis Case Study From Budapest Metropolitan Region, István Valánszki, Sándor Jombach, Krisztina F. Kovács, Asmaa Abualhagag Ahmed, Fernando A. Mendez Garzón, Gabriella Balha Jan 2019

Cultural Ecosystem Services And Local Identity – A Ppgis Case Study From Budapest Metropolitan Region, István Valánszki, Sándor Jombach, Krisztina F. Kovács, Asmaa Abualhagag Ahmed, Fernando A. Mendez Garzón, Gabriella Balha

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Several studies and international conventions highlight the importance of public participation in the process of strategy building. In spite of all these initiatives, public participation methods are not common tools in the practice (especially in Central-Eastern-Europe). In the frames of our research, we applied the ppGIS (Public Participation GIS) method, a special, mostly new tool in Hungary, in order to bridge the gap between the scientific world and local citizens. The method combines community based mapping with GIS techniques. It aims to foster the integration of the public into the process of evaluation, planning, and decision making using GIS technology ...


Ua1b3/6 Parking & Traffic Committee, Wku Archives Jan 2019

Ua1b3/6 Parking & Traffic Committee, Wku Archives

WKU Archives Collection Inventories

Records created by the Parking & Traffic Committee.


'Implementing Street Addressing System In An Evolving Urban Center. A Case Study Of The Kumasi Metropolitan Area In Ghana', Kwasi Abebrese Jan 2019

'Implementing Street Addressing System In An Evolving Urban Center. A Case Study Of The Kumasi Metropolitan Area In Ghana', Kwasi Abebrese

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The need for a functional addressing system is increasingly becoming critical for the management of the rapid growing cities in developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where most cities lack a comprehensive and standardized addressing system. This can be attributed in part to rapid urbanization and increased globalization which has resulted in greater integration of people, cities, companies and regions. Moreover, the advancement in geo-spatial technologies and location-based applications also underscore the need for a standardized addressing system. The lack of efficient and standardized addressing system in such cities hinders urban planning as it impedes the delivery of urban ...


Reconciling The Dissonance Between Historic Preservation And Virtual Reality Through A Place-Based Virtual Heritage System., Danny J. Bonenberger Jan 2019

Reconciling The Dissonance Between Historic Preservation And Virtual Reality Through A Place-Based Virtual Heritage System., Danny J. Bonenberger

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This study explores a problematic disconnect associated with virtual heritage and the immersive 3D computer modeling of cultural heritage. The products of virtual heritage often fail to adhere to long-standing principles and recent international conventions associated with historic preservation, heritage recording, designation, and interpretation. By drawing upon the geographic concepts of space, landscape, and place, along with advances in Geographic Information Systems, first-person serious games, and head-mounted Virtual Reality platforms this study envisions, designs, implements, and evaluates a virtual heritage system that seeks to reconcile the dissonance between Virtual Reality and historic preservation. Finally, the dissertation examines the contributions and ...


Transit Proximity And Affordable Housing Investments: Application Of Hedonic Model In Des Moines, Iowa, Rakibul Ahasan Jan 2019

Transit Proximity And Affordable Housing Investments: Application Of Hedonic Model In Des Moines, Iowa, Rakibul Ahasan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between investments in affordable housing by a non-profit organization (Greater Des Moines Habitat for Humanity- GDMH), proximity to public transit and housing prices in the City of Des Moines, in 2000 and 2018. The hypotheses were: the closer the residential unit is to the GDMH housing investment, the higher the housing price in the surroundings of the residential unit; and the closer the residential unit is to public transit stop, the lower the housing price in the surroundings of the residential unit. The Hedonic model was used with 2000 and 2018 housing prices as dependent ...


Ua3/1/5/2 President's Office-Cherry Campus Buildings, Wku Archives Jan 2019

Ua3/1/5/2 President's Office-Cherry Campus Buildings, Wku Archives

WKU Archives Collection Inventories

Records created by the President's Office during the Henry Hardin Cherry administration regarding the construction and maintenance of buildings.


Recovery Challenges Of Public Housing Residents After Disasters: Lumberton, North Carolina After Hurricane Matthew, Sayma Khajehei Jan 2019

Recovery Challenges Of Public Housing Residents After Disasters: Lumberton, North Carolina After Hurricane Matthew, Sayma Khajehei

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social vulnerability acknowledges that social structures shape disaster vulnerabilities and recovery outcomes. Public housing residents are one of the most socially vulnerable people that experience significant losses in disasters. Many factors, such as lower income and limited access to information, cause a delay in the housing recovery of public housing tenants. To explore these challenges, I examined the disaster impacts and recovery of public housing units in Lumberton, North Carolina, following the floods induced by Hurricane Matthew in 2016. This research is a part of an interdisciplinary recovery-based field study conducted by the Center of Excellence for Community Resilience Planning ...


Ua1c2/17 Cravens Graduate Center & Library Photos, Wku Archives Jan 2019

Ua1c2/17 Cravens Graduate Center & Library Photos, Wku Archives

WKU Archives Collection Inventories

Images of the Cravens Graduate Center & Library.


Innovation Districts As A Strategy For Urban Economic Development: A Comparison Of Four Cases, Joshua Drucker, Carla Maria Kayanan, Henry Renski Jan 2019

Innovation Districts As A Strategy For Urban Economic Development: A Comparison Of Four Cases, Joshua Drucker, Carla Maria Kayanan, Henry Renski

Center for Economic Development Technical Reports

Innovation districts are a relatively new strategy in urban economic development. They have been fast gaining attention and popularity, due in part to energetic third-party promotion and the apparent successes of two early adopters: Barcelona and Boston. As additional cities establish and promote innovation districts, it benefits policymakers to possess information regarding their characteristics and suitability as an economic development approach.

We conduct in-depth case studies of four innovation districts in the United States—located in Boston, Detroit, Saint Louis, and San Diego—that present contrasting settings, policies, and outcomes. The empirical information is drawn primarily from interviews with the ...