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Explosives Engineering Commons

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Simplifying Techniques Applied To Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Methane Explosions, Laura Steeves 2019 University of Kentucky

Simplifying Techniques Applied To Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Methane Explosions, Laura Steeves

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Traditional methods of studying underground coal mine explosions are limited to observations and data collected during experimental explosions. These experiments are expensive, time-consuming, and require major facilities, such as the Lake Lynn Experimental Mine. The development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of explosions can help minimize the need for large-scale testing. This thesis utilized the commercial CFD software, SC/Tetra, to examine three case studies. The first case study modeled the combustion of methane in a scaled shock tube, measuring approximately 1 foot by 1 foot, by 20.5 feet long, with a methane cloud of 2.5 feet ...


Pressure Versus Impulse Graph For Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury And Correlation To Observable Blast Injuries, Barbara Rutter 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Pressure Versus Impulse Graph For Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury And Correlation To Observable Blast Injuries, Barbara Rutter

Doctoral Dissertations

"With the increased use of explosive devices in combat, blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become one of the signature wounds in current conflicts. Animal studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms in the brain and a pressure versus time graph has been produced. However, the role of impulse in bTBIs has not been thoroughly investigated for animals or human beings.

This research proposes a new method of presenting bTBI data by using a pressure versus impulse (P-I) graph. P-I graphs have been found useful in presenting lung lethality regions and building damage thresholds. To present the animal ...


Shockwave Interaction With A Cylindrical Structure, Phillip R. Mulligan 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Shockwave Interaction With A Cylindrical Structure, Phillip R. Mulligan

Phillip R. Mulligan

An increased understanding of the shockwave interaction with a cylindrical structure is the foundation for developing a method to explosively seal a pipe similar to the Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico. Shockwave interactions with a cylindrical structure have been a reoccurring focus of energetics research. Some of the most notable contributions of non-destructive tests are described in ``The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' (Glasstone, 1962). The work presented by Glasstone examines shockwave interaction from a 20-megaton bomb with a cylindrical structure. However, the data is limited to a peak overpressure of less than 25 psi, requiring several miles ...


The Effects Of The Flyer Plate's Radius Of Curvature On The Performance Of An Explosively Formed Projectile, Phillip R. Mulligan, Jason Baird, Joshua Hoffman 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

The Effects Of The Flyer Plate's Radius Of Curvature On The Performance Of An Explosively Formed Projectile, Phillip R. Mulligan, Jason Baird, Joshua Hoffman

Phillip R. Mulligan

An explosively formed projectile (EFP) is known for its ability to penetrate vehicle armor effectively. Understanding how an EFP’s physical parameters affect its performance is crucial to development of armor capable of defeating such devices. The present study uses two flyer plate radii of curvature to identify the experimental effects of the flyer plate’s radius of curvature on the measured projectile velocity, depth of penetration, and projectile shape. The Gurney equation is an algebraic relationship for estimating the velocity imparted to a metal plate in contact with detonating explosives. The authors of this research used a form of ...


Explosively Formed Projectile Soft-Recovery Force Analysis, Laurin Bookout, Phillip R. Mulligan, Jason Baird 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Explosively Formed Projectile Soft-Recovery Force Analysis, Laurin Bookout, Phillip R. Mulligan, Jason Baird

Phillip R. Mulligan

The design of a soft-recovery system is critical to a researcher's ability to analyze hypervelocity projectiles. The researcher may decide to use one method over another based on several criteria, including whether or not non-deformed projectile measurements are required. This report analyzes the forces two different soft-recovery methods impart on the projectiles collected. Method 1 utilized three polyethylene water barrels placed “end-to-end” horizontally, providing 2.6 meters (9 feet) of water to stop the projectile. Method 2 is a modification of the soft-recovery method utilized in “Soft-Recovery of Explosively Formed Penetrators” by Lambert and Pope. This method utilizes a ...


Effect Of Explosive Charge Geometry On Shockwave Propagation, Catherine E. Johnson, Phillip R. Mulligan, Kelly Williams, Martin Langenderfer, Jeffrey Heniff 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Effect Of Explosive Charge Geometry On Shockwave Propagation, Catherine E. Johnson, Phillip R. Mulligan, Kelly Williams, Martin Langenderfer, Jeffrey Heniff

Phillip R. Mulligan

With advancements in the 3D printing of explosives, the understanding how the shape of an explosive charge influences the energy expansion and subsequently the focusing of energy is becoming increasingly more important. Theoretically, explosive charges could be printed to focus the energy on targets of interest or to synthesize nanomaterials. The first step to quantifying the energy expansion and shock wave convergences for a 3D printed charge is to examine simple geometries of traditional explosive charges (non-3D printed). Detonation of 15 PETN-based primasheet charges in the spherical, cubic, cylindrical, and tetrahedral configurations have been examined in this study. Qualitative data ...


The Effects Select Physical Parameters Have On An Explosively Formed Projectile's Performance, Phillip R. Mulligan 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

The Effects Select Physical Parameters Have On An Explosively Formed Projectile's Performance, Phillip R. Mulligan

Phillip R. Mulligan

"Identifying how changes in the physical parameters of an Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP) affect its performance is crucial in determining what physical parameters could be changed to achieve a desired performance. This research analyzes five of the physical parameters of an EFP, similar to an Iranian design (Worsey, 2009), and the effects on performance. The five physical parameters selected for this research were charge weight, confining geometry, flyer thickness, flyer curvature, and explosives-type. Eighteen different EFP designs were used to test the penetration, measured velocity, production of a dominant projectile, and kinetic energy of these five physical parameters. Of the ...


Modeling Explosive Lensing On A Cylindrical Body In Air: A First Step Towards Sealing An Underwater Offshore Oil Spill, Phillip R. Mulligan 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Modeling Explosive Lensing On A Cylindrical Body In Air: A First Step Towards Sealing An Underwater Offshore Oil Spill, Phillip R. Mulligan

Phillip R. Mulligan

"In 2010, the British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon accident leaked oil into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days. A fast response method that can seal an oil pipe and stop the release of oil is needed in order to prevent future oil leaks from turning into ecological and financial disasters. Explosives can serve this need.

This research examined how a circular implosive discontinuous explosive lens interacts with a cylindrical surface. The following research was designed to study the applicability of the Method this author developed to predict the peak pressure from multiple shockwaves converging on a centrally located cylinder ...


Using Coupled Eulerian And Lagrangian Grids To Model Explosive Interactions With Buildings, Braden Lusk, William P. Schonberg, Jason Baird, Robert S. Woodley, Warren Noll 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Using Coupled Eulerian And Lagrangian Grids To Model Explosive Interactions With Buildings, Braden Lusk, William P. Schonberg, Jason Baird, Robert S. Woodley, Warren Noll

Robert S. Woodley

This paper presents the development of a computational model that can be used to study the interactions between structures and detonating explosives contained within them. This model was developed as part of an effort to develop a rubble characterization model for use in AmmoSIM, an agent based urban tactical decision aid (UTDA) software for weapon-target pairing. The rubble pile created following the collapse of a building in a combat situation can significantly impact mission accomplishment, particularly in the area of movement and maneuver. The information provided by AmmoSIM will enable both platoon level and command center staff to make informed ...


Analysis Of Underground Coal Mine Structures Subjected To Dynamic Events, Brooklynn Yonts 2018 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Underground Coal Mine Structures Subjected To Dynamic Events, Brooklynn Yonts

Theses and Dissertations--Mining Engineering

Underground coal mine explosions pose a significant threat to infrastructure such as mine seals and refuge alternative chambers. After a mine seal failed in the Sago mine disaster, which took the life of 12 miners, design requirements were reexamined and improved. However, most research being completed on the analysis of mine structures during an explosive event focuses solely on peak pressure values, while ignoring the impact of pressure duration. This study investigates the impact pressure duration, waveform shape, and impulse have on structural displacement, while also exploring what pressures and duration can be expected during a mine explosion. Additionally, the ...


Management Of Coal Dust Explosions In United States' Coal Mines Using Bag Type Passive Explosion Barriers, Jay Robert Schafler 2018 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Management Of Coal Dust Explosions In United States' Coal Mines Using Bag Type Passive Explosion Barriers, Jay Robert Schafler

Masters Theses

"The most significant and powerful hazard that exists in an underground coal mine is a coal dust explosion. A coal dust explosion has the potential to propagate throughout a mine resulting in massive damage to the mine and equipment, as well as tragic loss of life. An assessment of current global regulations and practices uncovered four main control methods utilized to prevent coal dust explosions in coal mines world-wide. The United States is one of the few countries that does not regulate or employ all four of these safety practices. Additionally, a review of past research into coal dust explosions ...


Effect Of Explosive Charge Geometry On Shockwave Propagation, Catherine E. Johnson, Phillip R. Mulligan, Kelly Williams, Martin Langenderfer, Jeffrey Heniff 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Effect Of Explosive Charge Geometry On Shockwave Propagation, Catherine E. Johnson, Phillip R. Mulligan, Kelly Williams, Martin Langenderfer, Jeffrey Heniff

Mining and Nuclear Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

With advancements in the 3D printing of explosives, the understanding how the shape of an explosive charge influences the energy expansion and subsequently the focusing of energy is becoming increasingly more important. Theoretically, explosive charges could be printed to focus the energy on targets of interest or to synthesize nanomaterials. The first step to quantifying the energy expansion and shock wave convergences for a 3D printed charge is to examine simple geometries of traditional explosive charges (non-3D printed). Detonation of 15 PETN-based primasheet charges in the spherical, cubic, cylindrical, and tetrahedral configurations have been examined in this study. Qualitative data ...


Shockwave Interaction With A Cylindrical Structure, Phillip R. Mulligan 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Shockwave Interaction With A Cylindrical Structure, Phillip R. Mulligan

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

An increased understanding of the shockwave interaction with a cylindrical structure is the foundation for developing a method to explosively seal a pipe similar to the Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico. Shockwave interactions with a cylindrical structure have been a reoccurring focus of energetics research. Some of the most notable contributions of non-destructive tests are described in ``The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' (Glasstone, 1962). The work presented by Glasstone examines shockwave interaction from a 20-megaton bomb with a cylindrical structure. However, the data is limited to a peak overpressure of less than 25 psi, requiring several miles ...


The Influence Of Caprock On Blast Fragmentation Distribution, Matthew Kurtis Coy 2017 Missouri University of Science and Technology

The Influence Of Caprock On Blast Fragmentation Distribution, Matthew Kurtis Coy

Doctoral Dissertations

"This dissertation describes the development of a small-scale model of a caprock-laden quarry blast and discusses the results from that testing. The purpose of this testing was to provide insight into the reasons for poor caprock breakage during blasting.

Small-scale test blocks were poured using a weak mortar mix to represent a limestone formation at a small scale. A cold joint was created in the upper portion of the test specimens to represent the bedding plane that separates caprock and substrate layers in a caprock-laden limestone bench. The scale-model test blocks were blasted using detonating cord. The primary configuration for ...


Modeling Explosive Lensing On A Cylindrical Body In Air: A First Step Towards Sealing An Underwater Offshore Oil Spill, Phillip R. Mulligan 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Modeling Explosive Lensing On A Cylindrical Body In Air: A First Step Towards Sealing An Underwater Offshore Oil Spill, Phillip R. Mulligan

Doctoral Dissertations

"In 2010, the British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon accident leaked oil into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days. A fast response method that can seal an oil pipe and stop the release of oil is needed in order to prevent future oil leaks from turning into ecological and financial disasters. Explosives can serve this need.

This research examined how a circular implosive discontinuous explosive lens interacts with a cylindrical surface. The following research was designed to study the applicability of the Method this author developed to predict the peak pressure from multiple shockwaves converging on a centrally located cylinder ...


Material Properties Affecting The Penetration Of Metal Targets By Copper Linear Shaped Charges, Kevin Lee Phelps 2016 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Material Properties Affecting The Penetration Of Metal Targets By Copper Linear Shaped Charges, Kevin Lee Phelps

Masters Theses

"A linear shaped charge (LSC) is an explosive device used in demolition, aerospace, and in other applications that require the cutting of metal. Users of LSC's typically know the size of shaped charge needed to cut their target but commonly encounter previously untested materials. The motivation for this thesis is to provide an understanding as to what target material properties are good indicators of cutting performance so the selection of LSC can be more efficient. The author found that penetration theories for other types shaped charges were insufficient for the LSC, possibly because of the relatively slow projectile created ...


Analysis Of Effects Of Surface Roughness And Local Surface Imperfections On Measured Pressure, Laurin Ashley Bookout 2015 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Analysis Of Effects Of Surface Roughness And Local Surface Imperfections On Measured Pressure, Laurin Ashley Bookout

Doctoral Dissertations

"When tests using pressure to characterize the performance or effects of an explosive are conducted in laboratory or other small scale, highly controlled settings, it is expected that any gages will be ideally mounted and there will not be any surface imperfections or roughness near the gage location. However, when explosive tests are scaled up, the test beds typically do not have perfect surfaces. Instead there may be rough surfaces with various types of geometry or situations where it is extremely difficult to get the gage flush mounted with a flat surface. In a time where tests with multiple replications ...


The Effects Of Short Delay Times On Rock Fragmentation In Bench Blasts, Margaret Ruth Hettinger 2015 Missouri University of Science and Technology

The Effects Of Short Delay Times On Rock Fragmentation In Bench Blasts, Margaret Ruth Hettinger

Masters Theses

"Optimized rock fragmentation is essential for minimizing downstream costs to mining operations. Photographic fragmentation analysis, vibration monitoring, and high-speed video all provide measurements of blast effectiveness and supply data that allows operations to modify blasts to achieve downstream goals.

This study evaluates the effects of short hole-to-hole delay times on rock fragmentation. Photographic fragmentation analysis and various delay times were used on the same bench blast, the effects of timing on fragmentation were determined. This analysis provides a representative understanding of timing effects on fragmentation in the field, different from previous blast models which either negate the effects of timing ...


The Effects Of Physical Flash Hole Deviations On Factory-Grade Rifle Ammunition, Nicolaas Martin Schrier 2015 Missouri University of Science and Technology

The Effects Of Physical Flash Hole Deviations On Factory-Grade Rifle Ammunition, Nicolaas Martin Schrier

Masters Theses

"The objective of this research is to determine the effect of dimensional and positional changes of the primer flash hole on the performance of factory-grade rifle ammunition. The studied variables were flash hole diameter, offset from center, and orientation of the offset in the primer pocket. Cartridge performance was quantified by measuring muzzle velocity, chamber pressure, and target grouping size (precision).

Five different flash hole diameters were tested for both the Remington .223 and Winchester .308 calibers: 1.4mm, 2.0mm (the Fiocchi standard), 2.4mm, 2.8mm, and 3.0mm. Each diameter was tested at three offsets: centered (no ...


Test Development To Determine The Feasibility Of Rubber Tractor Treads For Use As Blasting Mats, Matthew Kurtis Coy 2014 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Test Development To Determine The Feasibility Of Rubber Tractor Treads For Use As Blasting Mats, Matthew Kurtis Coy

Masters Theses

"The objective of this thesis was to determine if rubber tractor treads could be used as an alternative material for blasting mats. These treads are made from steel cable and vulcanized rubber and are very tough. However, once they reach the end of their life on mobile equipment, they are destined for a landfill, or dump site because they are too tough to recycle. A potential alternative use for them is as blasting mats.

An examination of existing mat designs was conducted to better understand the matting methods used by the blasting industry today, to learn from those designs allow ...


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