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Cavitation Number As A Function Of Disk Cavitator Radius: A Numerical Analysis Of Natural Supercavitation, Reid Prichard 2019 Liberty University

Cavitation Number As A Function Of Disk Cavitator Radius: A Numerical Analysis Of Natural Supercavitation, Reid Prichard

Senior Honors Theses

Due to the greater viscosity and density of water compared to air, the maximum speed of underwater travel is severely limited compared to other methods of transportation. However, a technology called supercavitation – which uses a disk-shaped cavitator to envelop a vehicle in a bubble of steam – promises to greatly decrease skin friction drag. While a large cavitator enables the occurrence of supercavitation at low velocities, it adds substantial unnecessary drag at higher speeds. Based on CFD results, a relationship between cavitator diameter and cavitation number is developed, and it is substituted into an existing equation relating drag coefficient to cavitation ...


A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana

Doctoral Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) hold great potential for the renewable energy industry, but capital costs remain high. In efforts to increase FOWT substructure efficiency and reduce costs, this thesis investigates a novel multiline anchor concept in which FOWTs share anchors instead of being moored separately. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the force dynamics, design, and potential cost reduction of the system. Anchor forces are simulated using the NREL 5 MW reference turbine and OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, and multiline anchor force is computed as the vector sum of the contributing mooring line tensions.

The use of a ...


Closed Loop Energy Maximizing Control Of A Wave Energy Converter Using An Estimated Linear Model That Approximates The Nonlinear Froude-Krylov Force, Yaqzan Mohd Yaqzan 2019 Michigan Technological University

Closed Loop Energy Maximizing Control Of A Wave Energy Converter Using An Estimated Linear Model That Approximates The Nonlinear Froude-Krylov Force, Yaqzan Mohd Yaqzan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Wave energy converters (WECs) exploit ocean wave energy and convert it into useful forms such as electricity. But for WECs to be successful on a large scale, two primary conditions need to be satisfied. The energy generated must satisfy the network requirements, and second, energy flow from waves to the grid needs to be maximized. In this dissertation, we address the second problem. Most control techniques for WECs today use the Cummins' linear model to simulate WEC hydrodynamics. However, it has been shown that under the application of a control force, where WEC motions are amplified, the linear model diverges ...


Examination Of Ice Impactor And Mold, Matt Wilson 2019 The University of Akron

Examination Of Ice Impactor And Mold, Matt Wilson

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This research project investigates impact and damage response of composite sandwich structures impacted with solid ice at extreme low-temperature. Composite sandwich structures of carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets lining a polyvinyl chloride foam core are subjected to low-velocity impact at arctic temperatures. This impact will be delivered by a solid ice tool-tip via a drop impact testing machine. Data and test results acquired will be composed into a research report that will be submitted to The University of Akron and published in a scientific journal. This project builds upon the earlier study by Elamin, Li, & Tan (2018).


Feasible Form Parameter Design Of Complex Ship Hull Form Geometry, Thomas L. McCulloch 2018 University of New Orleans

Feasible Form Parameter Design Of Complex Ship Hull Form Geometry, Thomas L. Mcculloch

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This thesis introduces a new methodology for robust form parameter design of complex hull form geometry via constraint programming, automatic differentiation, interval arithmetic, and truncated hierarchical B- splines. To date, there has been no clearly stated methodology for assuring consistency of general (equality and inequality) constraints across an entire geometric form parameter ship hull design space. In contrast, the method to be given here can be used to produce guaranteed narrowing of the design space, such that infeasible portions are eliminated. Furthermore, we can guarantee that any set of form parameters generated by our method will be self consistent. It ...


Hydrodynamics Of An Anguilliform Swimming Motion Using Morison’S Equation, Naga Sasi Devarakonda 2018 University of New Orleans

Hydrodynamics Of An Anguilliform Swimming Motion Using Morison’S Equation, Naga Sasi Devarakonda

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In this study, the hydrodynamic performance of anguilliform swimming motion is computed using Morison’s equation. This method was shown to predict the servo motor torques well. The anguilliform swimming motion is sinusoidal with increasing amplitude from head to tail. A “wakeless” swimming motion proposed by Vorus and Taravella (2011) with zero net circulation is considered.

This method is compared to the existing slender body theory and is validated with reference to the experimental results of NEELBOT-1.1 (Potts, 2015). The results for the study indicates that self-propulsion speed of the motion is independent of the oscillating tail amplitude at ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Shape Characteristics Of Marine Snow Particles With Interactive Visualization: Validation Of Assumptions In Coagulation Models, Palak P. Dave 2018 University of South Florida

A Quantitative Analysis Of Shape Characteristics Of Marine Snow Particles With Interactive Visualization: Validation Of Assumptions In Coagulation Models, Palak P. Dave

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill that started on April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. There was an unexpected and prolonged sedimentation event of oil-associated marine snow to the seafloor due to the oil spill. The sedimentation event occurred because of the coagulation process among oil associated marine particles. Marine scientists are developing models for the coagulation process of marine particles and oil, in order to estimate the amount of oil that may reach the seafloor along with marine particles. These models, used certain assumptions regarding ...


Design Of A Robotic Cownose Ray, Mark Marzotto 2018 Union College

Design Of A Robotic Cownose Ray, Mark Marzotto

Honors Theses

Nature often inspires advances in science and technology and a promising example of this is mimicking locomotion of underwater animals. The main ways in which manmade aquatic vehicles propel themselves are water jets and propellers, which are inconsistent with how underwater animals swim. The cownose ray displays very efficient thrust with low frequency strokes by using a combination of oscillations and undulations with its pectoral fins. The goal of this paper is to mechanically replicate the actual fin motion of the cownose ray in order to capture these attractive features. The design will account for both the oscillations by designing ...


Purple Urchin Removal, Cullen Goss, Wil Gilbreath, Kevin Marshall 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Purple Urchin Removal, Cullen Goss, Wil Gilbreath, Kevin Marshall

Mechanical Engineering

Soaring purple urchin populations have contributed to a greater than 90% reduction of northern California’s bull kelp forests. Human intervention to reduce the purple urchin population may allow localized kelp patches to grow. The California Department of Fish and Wildlife requested that our team develop a mechanical device to aid in the removal of the urchins. This document provides an update from the scope of work and details the process conducted to reach a scale final design. In this document, we provide background research to show our understanding of urchins and their effect on kelp forests. Then, we analyze ...


Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Hawai'i Wildlife Fund V. County Of Maui, Lowell J. Chandler

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Hawai’i Wildlife Fund v. County of Maui, the Ninth Circuit held that the plain language of the Clean Water Act provides jurisdiction over indirect discharges of pollutants from a point source into groundwater that is shown to be connected to navigable waters. The court found that studies confirmed pollutants entering the Pacific Ocean were fairly traceable to the County of Maui’s sewage disposal wells. In affirming the district court’s ruling, the Ninth Circuit held that Maui County violated the Clean Water Act by discharging pollutants into a navigable water without the required permit. The court also ...


Optimal Control Of Wave Energy Converters, Shangyan Zou 2018 MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Optimal Control Of Wave Energy Converters, Shangyan Zou

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

In this dissertation, we address the optimal control of the Wave Energy Converters. The Wave Energy Converters introduced in this study can be categorized as the single body heaving device, the single body pitching device, the single body three degrees of freedoms device, and the Wave Energy Converters array. Different types of Wave Energy Converters are modeled mathematically, and different optimal controls are developed for them. The objective of the optimal controllers is to maximize the energy extraction with and without the motion and control constraints. The development of the unconstrained control is first introduced which includes the implementation of ...


Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian

Masters Theses

The influence of symmetry breaking on the flow induced oscillations of bluff bodies in the steamwise direction is studied. First, a series of experiments is conducted on a one-degree-of-freedom circular cylinder allowed to exhibit pure translational motion in the streamwise direction over a range of reduced velocities, 1.4 < U* < 4.4, corresponding to a Reynolds number range of 970 < Re < 3370. Two distinct regions of displacements were observed in reduced velocity ranges of 1.6 < U* < 2.5 and 2.75 < U* < 3.85. Measured force coefficients in the drag and lift direction were examined, along with the wake visualization, through the range of reduced velocities, to infer the resulting wake modes. A new Alternating Symmetric (AS) mode was found. This transition from symmetric to AS shedding occurred near the end of the first region of response. Similar tests were run with a square prism in the parameter space of 2.4 < U* < 5.8 and 757 < Re < 1900 over angles of incidence of 0° ≤ α ≤ 45°. A distinct region of lock-in is observed for α = 0°, 2.5°, 5°, 7.5° over 3.2 < U* < 5.4 for α = 0°, and decreasing with increasing α. The wake structures were found to be roughly symmetric for α = 0°, but transitioned towards asymmetry with ...


Extending Maneuverability Of Internally Actuated Underwater Gliders, An Attempt To Develop An Open Platform For Research And Education, Saeedeh Ziaeefard 2018 Michigan Technological University

Extending Maneuverability Of Internally Actuated Underwater Gliders, An Attempt To Develop An Open Platform For Research And Education, Saeedeh Ziaeefard

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Increasing maneuverability of internally actuated Underwater Gliders (UGs) is inevitable due to high demands in underwater surveillance and reconnaissance missions where agility and stealthiness are the keys to success. High maneuverability is needed to provide the opportunity for optimal trajectory planning, planar motion smoothness, and re-planning adapting to the dynamic environments.

This work explores extending the maneuverability of underwater gliders through coupled improvement in mechanical design, efficient use of internal actuation, and motion planning strategy utilizing flight concatenation. The existence of five flight patterns ``advanced flight", inspired by air gliders, enabled solely by utilizing internal actuation are investigated: Circle, Oval ...


Optimization And Control Of An Array Of Wave Energy Converters, Jianyang Lyu 2018 Michigan Technological University

Optimization And Control Of An Array Of Wave Energy Converters, Jianyang Lyu

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This study explored optimal configuration of both the array layout and the dimension of each WEC in the array. The array contains heaving buoys with full interaction and exact hydrodynamics. Optimization of dimension was done on each WEC in the array with a given optimal layout, and a higher q-factor was achieved. Both impedance matching optimal control and derivative control were employed, which provides both theoretical maximum energy and a more realistic case. Then the work was expanded to optimization of both the array layout and the dimension of each WEC in the array. An average of 39.21% higher ...


Large Eddy Simulation Of Oscillatory Flow Over A Rippled Bed Using An Euler-Lagrange Approach, Daniel S. Hagan 2018 University of Vermont

Large Eddy Simulation Of Oscillatory Flow Over A Rippled Bed Using An Euler-Lagrange Approach, Daniel S. Hagan

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

A volume-filtered Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of oscillatory flow over a rippled mobile bed is conducted using an Euler-Lagrange approach. As in unsteady marine flows over sedimentary beds, the experimental data, referenced in this work for validation, shows quasi-steady state ripples in the sand bed under oscillatory flow. This work approximately reproduces this configuration with a sinusoidal pressure gradient driven flow and a sinusoidally rippled bed of particles. The LES equations, which are volume-filtered to account for the effect of the particles, are solved on an Eulerian grid, and the particles are tracked in a Lagrangian framework. In the Discrete Particle ...


Potential Replacement Of The Us Navy's Rapid Penetration Test With The Method Of Multichannel Analysis Of Surface Waves, William Fletcher 2018 University of North Florida

Potential Replacement Of The Us Navy's Rapid Penetration Test With The Method Of Multichannel Analysis Of Surface Waves, William Fletcher

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The United States Navy (USN) currently utilizes a Rapid Penetration Test (RPT) on both land and in water as the means to determine whether sufficient soil bearing capacity exists for piles in axial compression, prior to construction of the Elevated Causeway System (Modular) [ELCAS(M)] pile-supported pier system. The USN desires a replacement for the RPT because of issues with the method incorrectly classifying soils as well as the need to have a less labor-and-equipment-intensive method for geotechnical investigation.

The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method is selected herein as the potential replacement for the RPT. The MASW method ...


Geometric Optimization Of A Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter, Ian Riley 2018 Georgia Southern University

Geometric Optimization Of A Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter, Ian Riley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wave energy shows significant potential for development into a competitive renewable energy source. Non-renewable resources are finite and contribute to adverse effects on the environment. Development of wave energy conversion devices that use heave motion as the primary driver for converting wave energy into electrical potential is explored through optimizing the geometry of an axisymmetric partially submerged buoy in deep water. The governing equations of motion and hydrodynamic forces are solved for in one degree of freedom using ANSYS Aqwa. An external PTO device is simulated to induce power capture in the system. Four different geometric shapes are tested and ...


Dynamic Modeling And Extreme Tension Analysis Of Mooring System For A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine, Wei Ting Hsu 2017 University of Maine

Dynamic Modeling And Extreme Tension Analysis Of Mooring System For A Floating Offshore Wind Turbine, Wei Ting Hsu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For offshore wind industry, exploiting the dynamic behaviors of mooring lines is of increasing importance in floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) mooring system design. Currently, the design philosophy for structures and moorings is based on principles and practices adopted in offshore oil and gas, including mooring systems that are optimized for applications in deeper waters. However, the design of FOWT mooring systems is facing several challenges, including installation costs, the stability of light-weight minimalistic platforms, and shallow water depths (50-300m). The extreme tension in mooring lines of a light displacement platform in shallow water is dominated by snap loads. Hence ...


Transformation Of Nonlinear Waves In The Presence Of Wind, Current, And Vegetation, Haifei Chen 2017 University of Maine

Transformation Of Nonlinear Waves In The Presence Of Wind, Current, And Vegetation, Haifei Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Accurate prediction of extreme wave events is crucial for the safe maritime activities and offshore operations. Improved knowledge of wave dissipation mechanisms due to breaking and vegetation leads to accurate wave forecast, protecting life and property along the coast. The scope of the thesis is to examine the wave transformations in the presence of wind, current, and vegetation, using a two-phase flow solver based on the open-source platform OpenFOAM. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are coupled with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) surface capturing scheme and a turbulence closure model. This RANS-VOF model is adapted to develop a numerical wind-wave-current ...


Dns And Les Of Scalar Transfer Across An Air-Water Interface During Inception And Growth Of Langmuir Circulation, Amine Hafsi 2017 University of South Florida

Dns And Les Of Scalar Transfer Across An Air-Water Interface During Inception And Growth Of Langmuir Circulation, Amine Hafsi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of an initially quiescent coupled air-water interface driven by an air flow with free stream speed of 5 m/s have been conducted. The DNS solves a scalar advection-diffusion equation for dissolved gas (or scalar) concentration in order to determine the impact of the water-side turbulence on scalar (mass) transfer from the air side to the water side and subsequent vertical transport in the water column. Two simulations are compared: one with a freely deforming interface and a second one with a flat interface. In the first simulation, the deforming interface evolves in the form of ...


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