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Thermomagnetic Convective Cooling Of Hall Effect Thruster, Elizabeth M. Vanheusden 2018 Michigan Technological University

Thermomagnetic Convective Cooling Of Hall Effect Thruster, Elizabeth M. Vanheusden

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This work proposes and shows that thermomagnetic convection could be used in zero gravity to cool components of a Hall-effect thruster. A ferrofluid cavity was develop in the thermal and geometric model of a Hall-effect thruster. Simulations show that with an Ionic Liquid Ferrofluid after two minutes of thruster operations thermomagnetic convection occurs and in zero gravity will produce a larger velocity then natural convection that occurs in earth gravity. However, experiments did not result in heat transfer enhancement due to the limitation of the ferrofluid. Replacement of the Ferrotec EFH1 dispersant with dodecylbenzene did not result in Ionic Liquid ...


Analysis Of Injection Parameters Influencing Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (Gdici) Engine Operation In Ltc Using Naphtha, Devyani Patil 2018 Michigan Technological University

Analysis Of Injection Parameters Influencing Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (Gdici) Engine Operation In Ltc Using Naphtha, Devyani Patil

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A multi-dimensional CFD study using MTU-KIVA-Geq-CHEMKIN code has been carried out for direct injection compression ignition engine combustion fueled with heavy naphtha, light naphtha, and PRF50 in low-temperature combustion (LTC) regime. At constant fueling, combustion characteristics are investigated as a function of injection timing and injection pressure. Further, operating limits of fuel confined by combustion efficiency, noise level (Maximum Pressure rise rate) and emissions at exhaust valve opening (EVO) are evaluated using parametric variation of initial gas temperature, exhaust gas recirculation fraction, boost pressure. Research conducted focuses on ability of fuel to get good combustion which is combustion efficiency >/= 90 ...


Experimental And Computational Investigation Of Dual Fuel Diesel- Natural Gas Rcci Combustion In A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine, Mufaddel Dahodwala 2018 Michigan Technological University

Experimental And Computational Investigation Of Dual Fuel Diesel- Natural Gas Rcci Combustion In A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine, Mufaddel Dahodwala

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Among the various alternative fuels, natural gas is considered as a leading candidate for heavy-duty applications due to its availability and applicability in conventional internal combustion diesel engines. Compared to their diesel counterparts natural gas fueled spark-ignited engines have a lower power density, reduced low-end torque capability, limited altitude performance, and ammonia emissions downstream of the three-way catalyst. The dual fuel diesel/natural gas engine does not suffer with the performance limitations of the spark-ignited concept due to the flexibility of switching between different fueling modes. Considerable research has already been conducted to understand the combustion behavior of dual fuel ...


Heat Transfer Vest, Nicholas Forsgaard 2018 Central Washington University

Heat Transfer Vest, Nicholas Forsgaard

All Undergraduate Projects

The purpose of this report is to document the progression of the authors senior project. . The of that project was the research of Liquid Cooled Garment (LCG) technology, the generation of a novel LCG prototype and the testing of that prototype relative to a commercial benchmark. As such, this report is a complete narrative of the of these tasks, their execution and the underlying assumptions and commentary. The motivation for this report is to satisfy the capstone requirements of the MET program at CWU by documenting the Senior Project and its subordinate tasks. First, the student designed a LCG system ...


Spacecraft Fire Safety Research: Combustion Of Lithium-Ion Batteries To Predict Fire Scenarios, Elisabeth Meyer 2018 The University of Akron

Spacecraft Fire Safety Research: Combustion Of Lithium-Ion Batteries To Predict Fire Scenarios, Elisabeth Meyer

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project was to research characteristics of a Lithium-ion battery fire to determine if trends exist in measured fire characteristics that can help predict different fire scenarios. These experiments will ultimately aid in developing an alarm threshold for a spacecraft smoke detector, specifically for Orion, a new, multi-purpose crew vehicle under development by NASA. Orion is the next-generation of spacecraft designed to replace the space shuttle and will play an important role in NASA’s journey to Mars.

In the experiments performed, Lithium-ion batteries were placed in a test chamber and ignited while smoke concentration was measured ...


Laminar And Turbulent Study Of Combustion In Stratified Environments Using Laser Based Measurements, Stephen William Grib 2018 University of Kentucky

Laminar And Turbulent Study Of Combustion In Stratified Environments Using Laser Based Measurements, Stephen William Grib

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Practical gas turbine engine combustors create extremely non-uniform flowfields, which are highly stratified making it imperative that similar environments are well understood. Laser diagnostics were utilized in a variety of stratified environments, which led to temperature or chemical composition gradients, to better understand autoignition, extinction, and flame stability behavior. This work ranged from laminar and steady flames to turbulent flame studies in which time resolved measurements were used.

Edge flames, formed in the presence of species stratification, were studied by first developing a simple measurement technique which is capable of estimating an important quantity for edge flames, the advective heat ...


The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Sub-Orbital Flights, James Devin Sparks 2018 University of Kentucky

The Kentucky Re-Entry Universal Payload System (Krups): Sub-Orbital Flights, James Devin Sparks

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

The Kentucky Re-entry Universal Payload System (KRUPS) is an adaptable testbed for atmosphere entry science experiments, with an initial application to thermal protection systems (TPS). Because of the uniqueness of atmospheric entry conditions that ground testing is unable to replicate, scientists principally rely on numerical models for predicting entry conditions. The KRUPS spacecraft, developed at the University of Kentucky, provides an inexpensive means of obtaining validation data to verify and improve these models.

To increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of the spacecraft, two sub-orbital missions were developed. The first mission, KUDOS, launched August 13th, 2017 on a Terrier-Improved Malamute ...


NoX Formation In Light-Hydrocarbon, Premixed Flames, Robert T. Hughes 2018 University of Kentucky

NoX Formation In Light-Hydrocarbon, Premixed Flames, Robert T. Hughes

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

This study explores the reactions and related species of NOx pollutants in methane flames in order to understand their production and consumption during the combustion process. To do this, several analytical simulations were run to explore the behavior of nitrogen species in the pre-flame, post- flame, and reaction layer regions. The results were then analyzed in order to identify all "steady-state" species in the flame as well as the determine all the unnecessary reactions and species that are not required to meet a defined accuracy. The reductions were then applied and proven to be viable.


Characterization Of Methane-Air Diffusion Flames For Flame Synthesis Application Through Optical Diagnostics, Zhaojin Diao 2018 University of Kentucky

Characterization Of Methane-Air Diffusion Flames For Flame Synthesis Application Through Optical Diagnostics, Zhaojin Diao

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Flame synthesis is a growing field of research aiming at forming new materials and coatings through injection of seed materials into a flame. Accurate prediction of the thermal structure of these flames requires detailed information on the radiative properties and a thorough understanding of the governing combustion processes. The objective of this work is to establish a basic optical diagnostic characterization of different methane-air diffusion flames of different complexity. The basic principles are developed and demonstrated at a rotational symmetric co-flow burner and finally applied to a burner consisting of six clustered microflames which is designed for future flame synthesis ...


Performance Evaluation Of The Children’S Sleepwear Against Hot Water Splash, AKM Mashud Alam, Yulin Wu, Chunhui Xiang 2018 Iowa State University

Performance Evaluation Of The Children’S Sleepwear Against Hot Water Splash, Akm Mashud Alam, Yulin Wu, Chunhui Xiang

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

The objective of this research is to examine, for the first time, the hot splash protection provided by the commercially available children’s sleepwear. Three types of commercially available children’s sleepwear, knitted in different fabric structures with different fiber composition, were evaluated. Polyester fabrics, due to better wicking property, spread hot water faster in both horizontal and vertical directions. As a result, a larger body surface area of the wearer would get burnt quickly. Cotton/modacrylic interlock fabrics, due to cotton excellent absorption of water and high thickness of the interlock structure, less body surface area was affected, indicating ...


Investigation Of The Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Of The Hand And Fingers In Firefighter Gloves Using A Thermal Hand, Jie Yang, Li Wang, Weiwei Chen, Rui Li, Liwen Wang, Huanjiao Dong, Chunhui Xiang, AKM Mashud Alam, Guowen Song 2018 Iowa State University

Investigation Of The Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Of The Hand And Fingers In Firefighter Gloves Using A Thermal Hand, Jie Yang, Li Wang, Weiwei Chen, Rui Li, Liwen Wang, Huanjiao Dong, Chunhui Xiang, Akm Mashud Alam, Guowen Song

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

The heat transfer coefficients of the hands are critical inputs of the thermoregulation model that can simulate thermal responses of the hand and fingers. Besides, the hand has a greater surface area to mass ratio and complex anthropometric parameters, thus is extremely important in heat transfer and thermoregulation.

However, the convective heat transfer coefficients of the fingers, palm, and dorsal of the hand are not fully investigated and understood. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for full understanding of the convective heat transfer coefficients in both the whole-hand and regional segments. The results of this study will provide guidance for ...


Investigating The Effects Of Size On Glove Thermal Insulation Using A Thermal Hand, Weiwei Chen, Jie Yang, Li Wang, Rui Li, Chunhui Xiang, Huanjiao Dong, Liwen Wang, AKM Mashud Alam, Guowen Song 2018 Jiangsu College of Engineering and Technology

Investigating The Effects Of Size On Glove Thermal Insulation Using A Thermal Hand, Weiwei Chen, Jie Yang, Li Wang, Rui Li, Chunhui Xiang, Huanjiao Dong, Liwen Wang, Akm Mashud Alam, Guowen Song

International Textile and Apparel Association (ITAA) Annual Conference Proceedings

Thermal insulation for gloves has also been measured to assess comfort using thermal hands. However, the previous studies mainly focused on the thermal insulation among different types of gloves, rather than across different-sized gloves of the same type. Actually, the air gap thickness and volume between the skin of the hand and the gloves varies with the size of the gloves and on different locations on the hand, thereby affecting the heat and mass transfer between the skin and its thermal environment.

Consequently, different-sized gloves will affect the thermal responses of hand and fingers as well as the thermal comfort ...


Investigation On The Potential Of A Co2 Capture System, Downstream Of The Aftertreatment System For A Heavy-Duty Engine Application, Murchana Pathak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Investigation On The Potential Of A Co2 Capture System, Downstream Of The Aftertreatment System For A Heavy-Duty Engine Application, Murchana Pathak

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The transportation sector accounts for the second largest source of CO2 emissions after power generation. New Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations are focusing on improving energy through reduced fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This work investigates the potential of a CO2 capture system downstream of an aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty engine application. Amine absorption has been described as one of the most effective ways to capture CO2 from the exhaust for point sources. Therefore, using thermal-swing absorption process with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as the absorbent liquid, a process was analyzed for ...


Effects Of Air-Fuel Ratio And Operating Conditions On Particle Emissions From A Small Diesel Engine, Odinmma John-Paul Ofili 2018 Bucknell University

Effects Of Air-Fuel Ratio And Operating Conditions On Particle Emissions From A Small Diesel Engine, Odinmma John-Paul Ofili

Master’s Theses

Automotive engineers typically increase the air-fuel ratio (AFR) of an engine to control the amount of smoke emitted, but it not quite known how this process affects particulate number (PN). In the work presented, AFR was independently varied to study its effects on PN. It was found that increasing the AFR reduced the concentrations of larger particles from 108 #/cm3 to 106 #/cm3 which is an effect observable as a reduction in smoke. However, the same increases in AFR only resulted in an energy specific PN change from 1015 #/kWh to 1014 #/kWh. The ...


Capillary-Assisted Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer For Low Surface Tension Liquids, Gnana Vishnu Durgam 2018 Michigan Technological University

Capillary-Assisted Enhanced Condensation Heat Transfer For Low Surface Tension Liquids, Gnana Vishnu Durgam

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Extensive research has been carried out over the course of the last few decades to induce dropwise condensation as it offers 5 - 7 times better heat transfer performance compared to filmwise condensation process. A number of methods such as low surface energy hydrophobic coatings, surface modification of hydrophobic surfaces to fabricate micro, nano and hierarchical structures, and the recent incorporation of jumping droplet phenomenon have provided effective means to further enhance the condensation heat transfer. However, existing methods to enhance condensation heat transfer rate fail in the case of low surface tension, highly wetting liquids such as hydrocarbons, cryogens, and ...


Thermodynamically Consistent And Scale-Dependent Phase Field Approach For Crack Propagation Allowing For Surface Stresses, Valery I. Levitas, Hossein Jafarzadeh, Gholam Hossein Farrahi, Mahdi Javanbakht 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Thermodynamically Consistent And Scale-Dependent Phase Field Approach For Crack Propagation Allowing For Surface Stresses, Valery I. Levitas, Hossein Jafarzadeh, Gholam Hossein Farrahi, Mahdi Javanbakht

Aerospace Engineering Publications

A thermodynamically-consistent phase field approach for crack propagation which includes the following novel features is presented. (1) Scale dependency was included by relating the length scale to the number of cohesive interatomic planes at the crack tip. Because of this, the developed theory is applicable from the atomistic to the macroscopic scales. (2) The surface stresses (tension) are introduced by employing some geometrical nonlinearities even in small strain theory. They produce multiple contributions to the Ginzburg-Landau equation for crack propagation. (3) Crack propagation in the region with compressive closing stresses is eliminated by employing a stress-state-dependent kinetic coefficient in the ...


Optimization Of Heat Sinks In A Range Of Configurations., Archibald Allswell Amoako 2018 South Dakota State University

Optimization Of Heat Sinks In A Range Of Configurations., Archibald Allswell Amoako

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, different heatsink geometries used for electronic cooling are studied and compared to each other to determine the most efficient. The goal is to optimize heat transfer of the heat sinks studied in a range of configuration based on fin geometry. Heat sinks are thermal conductive material devices designed to absorb and disperse heat from high-temperature objects (e.g. Computer CPU). Common materials used in the manufacturing of heat sinks are aluminum and copper due to their relatively high thermal conductivity and lightweight [1]. Aluminum is used as the material for the heatsinks studied in this research project ...


Spray And Combustion Studies Of High Reactivity Gasoline In Comparison To Diesel Under Advanced Compression Ignition Engine Conditions, Meng Tang 2018 Michigan Technological University

Spray And Combustion Studies Of High Reactivity Gasoline In Comparison To Diesel Under Advanced Compression Ignition Engine Conditions, Meng Tang

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology has demonstrated great potentials in improving fuel economy and reducing engine-out NOx and particulate matter emissions. Development and application of the GCI technology on multi-cylinder engines require both fundamental understandings of the gasoline spray combustion characteristics and accurate numerical tools. Due to the large differences in the thermo-physical and the chemical properties between gasoline and diesel range fuels, differences in the spray combustion characteristics between gasoline and diesel is expected. Reports on the gasoline spray combustion characteristics under conditions relevant to medium to heavy-duty engines are scarce and this dissertation aims to fill in ...


Computational Exploration Of Flash-Boiling Internal Flow And Near-Nozzle Spray, Sampath K. Rachakonda 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Computational Exploration Of Flash-Boiling Internal Flow And Near-Nozzle Spray, Sampath K. Rachakonda

Doctoral Dissertations

Gasoline engines operating under the principle of direct injection are susceptible to flash-boiling due to superheated nature of the fuel and the sub-atmospheric in-cylinder pressures during injection. A review of the literature on flash-boiling sprays shows that a majority of the studies have focused on the far-field regions of the spray, with limited attention given to understanding the influences of the injector geometry and the near-nozzle regions of the spray. Modeling the internal nozzle flow and the primary atomization, on which the far-field spray depends, is a challenge. This thesis, therefore, is aimed at understanding the complex flow through a ...


Simulation Of An Ethylene Flame With Turbulence, Soot And Radiation Modeling, Santu Golder 2018 South Dakota State University

Simulation Of An Ethylene Flame With Turbulence, Soot And Radiation Modeling, Santu Golder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis will investigate soot models that are available in commercial codes. We will look at the effect of turbulence models, gravity, soot models and radiation. Simulations will be compared to Coppalle and Joyeux [1]. The flame is an ethylene air diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 5700. Simulations show the SST turbulence model, one-step soot model and Rosseland radiation model including gravity agree well with experimental data (temperature and soot). Flamelet soot modeling from Carbonell et al. [2] and flamelet radiation modeling from Doom [3] has been incorporated and compared as well.


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