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Post-Fire Damage Geospatial Assessment Via Point Clouds Of A Highway Bridge Structure, Yijun Liao, M Ebrahim Mohammadi, Richard L. Wood, Christine E. Wittich 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Post-Fire Damage Geospatial Assessment Via Point Clouds Of A Highway Bridge Structure, Yijun Liao, M Ebrahim Mohammadi, Richard L. Wood, Christine E. Wittich

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper discusses the quantitative post-fire damage assessment of a steel girder bridge via point clouds. In this case study, the point cloud was collected using light detection and ranging (lidar) for a detailed geometric and shape analysis. The out-of-plane deformation was analyzed to locate and quantify buckling across the length of the steel girders.


Damage Assessment Of A Sixteen Story Building Following The 2017 Central Mexico Earthquake, Yijun Liao, Richard L. Wood, M Ebrahim Mohammadi, Kanchan Devkota, Christine E. Wittich 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Damage Assessment Of A Sixteen Story Building Following The 2017 Central Mexico Earthquake, Yijun Liao, Richard L. Wood, M Ebrahim Mohammadi, Kanchan Devkota, Christine E. Wittich

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

The 2017 M7.1 Central Mexico Earthquake caused significant infrastructural damage in the Mexico City area. The earthquake contained a significant pulse in the long period, resulting in numerous buildings severely damaged or collapsed. This paper discusses a reinforced concrete building which was still partially occupied post-earthquake. The building’s interior walls were examined to have substantial damage, including some extensive cracking. In January 2018, the authors visited the structure and collected detailed assessment data. The data collection included ground-based lidar scans and recorded ambient vibrations of the damaged structure using accelerometers. Eleven scans were collected from the four exterior ...


Efficient Intensity Measures Of Slide-Rocking Structures For Precariously Balanced Rocks, Taylor J. Knickerbocker, Christine E. Wittich 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Efficient Intensity Measures Of Slide-Rocking Structures For Precariously Balanced Rocks, Taylor J. Knickerbocker, Christine E. Wittich

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

Precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) and other fragile geologic features are important in both the engineering and seismological communities since they are indicative of the maximum ground motion at a site over the rock’s lifetime. Precariously balanced rocks are individual or stacks of freestanding rocks that tend to respond in rigid body modes when subject to seismic excitation – namely, rocking, sliding, slide-rocking, and free-flight, which can lead to overturning. The seismic response of freestanding structures, such as PBRs, is known to be extremely sensitive to small changes in geometry, position, and earthquake excitation. As such, deterministic methods are limited in ...


Incorporation Of Contaminated Sediment Into Environmentally Safe Concrete, Andrew Needs 2019 The University of Akron

Incorporation Of Contaminated Sediment Into Environmentally Safe Concrete, Andrew Needs

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The research performed through this project provided some interesting results on how the different properties of the contaminated sediment can impact the strength of the new concrete.

Average three, seven, and fourteen-day strengths increased when comparing to the baseline mix developed for the experiment. Increases in strengths were notices in the ten and twenty-five percent soil replacement mixes. The largest increase was approximately thirty-three percent greater than the baseline average.

The results from the forty percent replacement test showed a significant decrease in strengths when comparing against the baseline mix. A loss of about thirty percent was observed between the ...


Analysis Of Standardized Concrete Mixes, Riley Graybeal 2019 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Standardized Concrete Mixes, Riley Graybeal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Concrete is one of the most common materials used in construction. It is mass produced throughout the country, with numerous different designs for concrete mixes. A common practice among concrete manufacturers is to use a standardized concrete mix design. These standardized mix designs are pre-tested and are not usually altered frequently. The hypothesis of this research project is that manufacturers do not constantly investigate new ways to save on their mixes, and simply use the same standardized mix designs.

In this research, investigations into what alterations may reduce the cost of standardized mixes began with a baseline mix design provided ...


Short Beam Shear Strength Evaluations Of Gfrp Composites: Correlations Through Accelerated And Natural Aging, William Todd Barker 2019 West Virginia University

Short Beam Shear Strength Evaluations Of Gfrp Composites: Correlations Through Accelerated And Natural Aging, William Todd Barker

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) composites have been materials of interest in replacing or reinforcing steel, wood, and concrete, but lack of understanding of degradation under physical and chemical aging is a main concern. Through many years of research, the understanding of aging or durability of GFRPs has improved. To be able to evaluate aging related degradation rates, an accelerated aging methodology under varying environments is introduced. Accelerated aging is a concept used to age composites in a lab controlled environment under varying pH conditions (2 to 13) and temperatures (~ -20° to +160°F). Once acceleratedly aged testing is completed, Arrhenius ...


Retaining Wall System With Soldier Pile And Composite Resin Infused Lagging Elements, Shane Phillip Moore 2019 West Virginia University

Retaining Wall System With Soldier Pile And Composite Resin Infused Lagging Elements, Shane Phillip Moore

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Retaining walls are used as an alternative to installing drainage and soil reinforcement, depending on site conditions. This report discusses the design of a retaining wall with steel soldier piles and lagging elements for rocky slopes. The design consists of six different options, three options with a span of eight feet and three options with a span of ten feet between soldier piles. The three options for both spans are the same concept but designed for different load conditions. These options include: timber with glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) wraps, reinforced concrete with GFRP wraps, and an FRP Prodeck system ...


Field Performance And Rating Evaluation Of A Modular Press-Brake-Formed Steel Tub Girder With A Steel Sandwich Plate Deck, Nicole Marie Hegele Underwood 2019 West Virginia University

Field Performance And Rating Evaluation Of A Modular Press-Brake-Formed Steel Tub Girder With A Steel Sandwich Plate Deck, Nicole Marie Hegele Underwood

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance (SSSBA) is a group of bridge and culvert industry leaders (including steel manufacturers, fabricators, service centers, coaters, researchers, and representatives of related associations and government organizations) who have joined together to provide educational information on the design and construction of short span steel bridges in installations up to 140 feet in length. The SSSBA technical working group has developed a shallow press-brake-formed tub girder, a trapezoidal cold bent girder, to address the demand in the short span steel bridge market for rapid infrastructure replacement solutions.

Following extensive experimental testing and design work at West ...


Thin-Film Sensor For Fatigue Crack Sensing And Monitoring In Steel Bridges Under Varying Crack Propagation Rates And Random Traffic Loads, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, Caroline Bennett, William Collins, Simon Laflamme, Hongki Jo 2019 University of Kansas

Thin-Film Sensor For Fatigue Crack Sensing And Monitoring In Steel Bridges Under Varying Crack Propagation Rates And Random Traffic Loads, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, Caroline Bennett, William Collins, Simon Laflamme, Hongki Jo

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Fatigue cracks are critical structural concerns for steel highway bridges, and fatigue initiation and propagation activity continues undetected between physical bridge inspections. Monitoring fatigue crack activity between physical inspections can provide far greater reliability in structural performance and can be used to prevent excessive damage and repair costs. In this paper, a thin-film strain sensor, called a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) sensor, is evaluated for sensing and monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The SEC is a flexible and mechanically robust strain sensor, capable of monitoring strain over large structural surfaces. By deploying multiple SECs in the form of dense ...


Data-Driven Risk-Based Assessment Of Wind-Excited Tall Buildings Using Surrogate Models, Laura Micheli, Alice Alipour, Simon Laflamme 2019 Iowa State University

Data-Driven Risk-Based Assessment Of Wind-Excited Tall Buildings Using Surrogate Models, Laura Micheli, Alice Alipour, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

The damage reported from structural and non-structural elements during severe windstorms promoted the extension of the performance-based design (PBD) philosophy to wind-excited tall buildings. A critical part of PBD is the risk assessment of the facility. Risk assessment allows the estimation of the probability of failure of the structure considering the uncertainties arising from the external hazard and the material properties. This probability is typically estimated using a nonlinear model, which permits for the evaluation of the building performance beyond the elastic regime. In wind-excited tall buildings, the use of sophisticated computational models and the long duration of typical wind ...


Performance Of Concrete Tunnel Systems Subject To Fault Displacement, Michael Morano 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Performance Of Concrete Tunnel Systems Subject To Fault Displacement, Michael Morano

Masters Theses

A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) investigation of concrete tunnel systems traversing seismic faults is carried out to determine how to effectively mitigate the stresses induced in the liner when subject to fault displacement. A parametric study of various fault parameters, both in the damage zone and competent rock, is carried out to determine the site conditions which induce the most stress on the tunnel liner system. Results indicate that friction angle, cohesion, and elastic modulus of fault zones have varying effects on the stresses induced on the liner. The width of damage zone and expected displacements are also investigated and ...


Bending Response Of Timber Mortise And Tenon Joints Reinforced With Filler-Modules And Frp Gussets, Andrew Robert Pacifico 2019 West Virginia University

Bending Response Of Timber Mortise And Tenon Joints Reinforced With Filler-Modules And Frp Gussets, Andrew Robert Pacifico

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In 2013, the California Bay Area (CBA) passed a set of ordinances to ensure that their 10,000 plus timber soft-story buildings were prepared for seismic events, through nondestructive evaluation methods. Many property owners are searching for an affordable retrofitting system that will also meet CBA’s new laws focusing on installations by the mandated deadlines in 2020. Over the past three to four decades, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have found their way into the civil infrastructure sector for rehabilitation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the bending behavior retrofitted mortise and tenon timber joints reinforced with ...


Perceptions Of Vulnerability To Flooding, Hurricanes, And Climate Change On Grand Isle, Louisiana’S Only Inhabited Barrier Island, Lauren Miller 2019 University of Montana

Perceptions Of Vulnerability To Flooding, Hurricanes, And Climate Change On Grand Isle, Louisiana’S Only Inhabited Barrier Island, Lauren Miller

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

This study used in-depth interviews of permanent residents on Grand Isle, Louisiana, a remote barrier island, to better understand their perceptions of structural flood measures, non-structural responses to flooding and hurricanes, and perceptions of vulnerability to flooding, hurricanes, and climate change on a remote barrier island-Grand Isle, Louisiana. Residents' perceptions regarding the various structural measures implemented by the federal, state, and local government appeared mixed. Non-structural responses to flooding risks implemented at the household, community, state, and federal level continue to strengthen resiliency on Grand Isle. According to interviewees, aspects of environmental, rural, and economic vulnerability on Grand Isle impact ...


Life Cycle Cost Evaluation Strategy For High Performance Control Systems Under Uncertainties, Laura Micheli, Ling Cao, Simon Laflamme, Alice Alipour 2019 Iowa State University

Life Cycle Cost Evaluation Strategy For High Performance Control Systems Under Uncertainties, Laura Micheli, Ling Cao, Simon Laflamme, Alice Alipour

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

High-performance control systems (HPCSs), including active, hybrid, and semi-active control strategies, can perform over a wide excitation bandwidth and are therefore good candidates for multi-hazard mitigation. However, the number of HPCS applications in the field is very limited. This is likely due the perceived high costs of installation, maintenance, possible malfunction, and lack of tools to financially justify their implementation. Such financial justifications could be conducted through life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, but would result in a computationally demanding task due to the very large number of simulations required given the large number of uncertainties. In this paper, two sets ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Bottom Bar Splice Location On Performance Of Beams In Reinforced Concrete Perimeter Frames, Jorge Rivera Cruz 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Bottom Bar Splice Location On Performance Of Beams In Reinforced Concrete Perimeter Frames, Jorge Rivera Cruz

Doctoral Dissertations

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318-14) indirectly accounts for resistance to progressive collapse by providing requirements for structural integrity in concrete structures. ACI 318-14 structural integrity requirements are intended to provide alternate load paths so that progressive collapse is avoided in the event of the unintended loss of an interior support.

ACI 318-14 §9.7.7.5 requires that splices of structural integrity reinforcement be designed as Class B splices near mid-span for top reinforcement and near the support for bottom reinforcement. However, ACI 318-14 does not provide a clear definition ...


Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panos Pantidis 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panos Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


The Influence Of Surface Reinforcement On Concrete Failure Under Shear Loading, James Buban 2019 Iowa State University

The Influence Of Surface Reinforcement On Concrete Failure Under Shear Loading, James Buban

Creative Components

Recently, construction costs have been at a global high – paired with increased global demand, rise in cost of material and limited skilled labor – it has become of utmost paramount to determine the solutions in the Civil Engineering industry to accommodate these changes and relieve these costs. Fastening to concrete has been important part of the construction industry for many years. Several standards have adopted a form of determining the strength of concrete breakout such as: ACI 318, ACI 349, or European code “Design of Fastenings in Concrete.” Many of these codes still reference testing and use equations that were developed ...


A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Multiline Anchor Concept For Floating Offshore Wind Turbines, Casey Fontana

Doctoral Dissertations

Floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) hold great potential for the renewable energy industry, but capital costs remain high. In efforts to increase FOWT substructure efficiency and reduce costs, this thesis investigates a novel multiline anchor concept in which FOWTs share anchors instead of being moored separately. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the force dynamics, design, and potential cost reduction of the system. Anchor forces are simulated using the NREL 5 MW reference turbine and OC4-DeepCwind semisubmersible platform, and multiline anchor force is computed as the vector sum of the contributing mooring line tensions.

The use of a ...


Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli

Doctoral Dissertations

Known in the building industry throughout the world, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a massive timber building material with outstanding structural, fire, and seismic properties. CLT is a cost-competitive, sustainable construction material is a good candidate as a substitute material for concrete, masonry, and steel, in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. CLT is perpendicular layers of dimensional lumbers usually laminated together and forming a massive structural panel. This dissertation explores the viability of utilizing Massachusetts grown Eastern Hemlock and Eastern White Pine in CLT panels as pure or in conjunction with other high-value wood products. 59% of Massachusetts’ lands are covered ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari

Doctoral Dissertations

Composite construction is prevalent in advanced structural systems where components of different materials are combined in the same structure to improve the performance of strong and economic structural sections. Maintaining continuity between the different structural components to produce monolithic structural behavior is challenging because of differences in the mechanical properties of these materials in terms of stiffness, strength, and ductility. The different components of the composite section are typically joined using adhesives and/or mechanical anchors to produce partial or full composite action. This dissertation discusses two types of shear interfaces intended to result in structural composite behavior. The first ...


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