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Thermal Removal Of Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere: Energy Requirements And Scaling Issues, Ted von Hippel 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Thermal Removal Of Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere: Energy Requirements And Scaling Issues, Ted Von Hippel

Ted von Hippel

I conduct a systems-level study of direct air capture of CO2 using techniques from thermal physics. This system relies on a combination of an efficient heat exchanger, radiative cooling, and refrigeration, all at industrial scale and operated in environments at low ambient temperatures. While technological developments will be required for such a system to operate efficiently, those developments rest on a long history of refrigeration expertise and technology, and they can be developed and tested at modest scale. I estimate that the energy required to remove CO2 via this approach is comparable to direct air capture by other techniques. The ...


Desalination: Freeze Crystallization, Ibrahim Guiga 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Desalination: Freeze Crystallization, Ibrahim Guiga

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Freezerbacks researched, designed, and economically evaluated a full-scale freeze crystallization process as well as two alternative full-scale processes: 5 stage multiple effect evaporation and reverse osmosis. All three processes were designed to treat hyper-saline mine water that was sent into evaporation pond systems. These systems were designed for Freeport-McMoRan’s mines that need to treat impacted water.

The Freeport-McMoRan copper mine in Miami, Arizona was visited in order to gain insight about the problem. The mine is no longer actively mining copper and is in the process of reclaiming land used. An essential part of restoring the land is ...


Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Examination Of Flow Dynamics And Passive Cooling In An Ultra Compact Combustor, Tylor C. Rathsack

Theses and Dissertations

The Ultra Compact Combustor (UCC) promises to greatly reduce the size of a gas turbine engine’s combustor by altering the manner in which fuel is burnt. Differing from the common axial flow combustor, the UCC utilizes a rotating flow, coaxial to the engine’s primary axis, in an outboard circumferential cavity as the primary combustion zone. The present study investigates two key UCC facets required to further this combustor design. The first area of investigation is cooling of the Hybrid Guide Vane (HGV). This UCC specific hardware acts as a combustor center body that alters the exit flow angle ...


Scaling Film Cooling Adiabatic Effectiveness With Mass Transfer And Thermal Experimental Techniques, Luke J. McNamara 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Scaling Film Cooling Adiabatic Effectiveness With Mass Transfer And Thermal Experimental Techniques, Luke J. Mcnamara

Theses and Dissertations

With increasing engine temperatures, it is becoming more important to design effective film cooling schemes. Low temperature, large scale tests are often implemented in the design process to reduce cost and complexity. A nondimensional adiabatic effectiveness can be used as an indication of the performance of a film cooling scheme. However, the coolant flow rate must be properly scaled between the low temperature tests and engine temperatures to accurately predict film cooling effectiveness. This process is complicated by gas property variation with temperature. Tests are commonly conducted using thermal measurement techniques with infrared thermography (IR), but the use of pressure ...


Tactical Missile Performance For Single And Multi-Wire Embedded Propellant Configurations With Discontinuities, Paul B. Wilson 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Tactical Missile Performance For Single And Multi-Wire Embedded Propellant Configurations With Discontinuities, Paul B. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

This research analyzes the performance of a nominal air-to-air tactical missile with varying configurations of wire-embedded end-burning solid propellant grains. Single and multi-wire models are developed to determine if total impulse and range is improved. Discontinuities in the wires are simulated to determine if gaps in the wire will affect overall performance. Five wire materials, seven wire diameters, and nine different break locations are tested. This research demonstrates wire discontinuities have negligible impact on performance and carbon nanotube fibers can theoretically improve total impulse by up to 25% compared to radially burning boost-phase grains while providing similar thrust outputs.


Introducing Concept Maps In Undergraduate Thermodynamics, Jessie Lofton 2019 University of Evansville

Introducing Concept Maps In Undergraduate Thermodynamics, Jessie Lofton

ASEE IL-IN Section Conference

Concept maps, also called mind maps, are a widely utilized educational tool. While numerous studies cite the benefits of concept mapping as a tool for student learning, the use of concept maps is more common in non-engineering disciplines. This study examines student perceptions and academic performance in an undergraduate, introductory Thermodynamics course for students majoring in Mechanical Engineering. The pedagogical approach includes incorporating student-developed concept maps, as well as an interactive study tool for First Law analysis. Qualitative and quantitative results are presented. Results are limited to a single institution and a small sample size of students. Future work will ...


Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Transition Temperature Of Two Thermo-Responsive Polymers, Joshua Moser 2019 The University of Akron

Effects Of Hofmeister Ions On Transition Temperature Of Two Thermo-Responsive Polymers, Joshua Moser

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It was hypothesized that through the use of Hofmeister Ions, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) and poly(ethylene glycol)- poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PEG-b-pNIPAAm) block-copolymer could be controlled. Through literature searches and small lab experiments, our team found that there may be a connection between Hofmeister effects and phase transition of a thermo-responsive polymer. To try and prove this, the lab team decided to take four cations (Mg2+,Na+, Cs+, K+) in solution with the thermo-responsive polymers and compared their LCST to solutions of the thermo-responsive polymer in de-ionized (DI) water. From this ...


Form Stable Phase-Change Materials, Russell Dent, Marjan Kashfipour, Nitin Mehra, Jiahua Zhu 2019 University of Akron

Form Stable Phase-Change Materials, Russell Dent, Marjan Kashfipour, Nitin Mehra, Jiahua Zhu

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This work investigates the use of two different polyols, xylitol (Xyl) and erythritol (Ery), in conjunction with boron nitride (BN) aerogels, for the purpose of creating thermally conductive composites. While the BN filler in Xyl composites achieved a high anisotropic thermal conductivity of up to 4.53 W/m-K at 18.2 weight percent filler loading, they do not exhibit good phase-change material qualities due to a low solidification enthalpy even at low cooling rates. Alternatively, the BN-Ery composites have shown promising results with a solidification enthalpy of 225.14 J/g and a melting enthalpy of 385.84 J ...


Reduction Of Nox Emissions In A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sncr With In-Cylinder Injection Of Aqueous Urea, Anthony Timpanaro 2019 University of North Florida

Reduction Of Nox Emissions In A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sncr With In-Cylinder Injection Of Aqueous Urea, Anthony Timpanaro

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The subject of this study is the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea ((NH2)2CO) into the combustion chamber. A single cylinder diesel test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation.

Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen in order to ensure precise delivery of the reducing agent without the risk of any premature reactions taking place. Unlike direct in-cylinder injection of neat water, aqueous ...


Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Contact In The Developing Post-Dryout Chf Flow Boiling Regime Using Surface Mounted Thermistors, Hiralkumar Harshadbhai Patel 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Contact In The Developing Post-Dryout Chf Flow Boiling Regime Using Surface Mounted Thermistors, Hiralkumar Harshadbhai Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

"Understanding heat transfer in the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow boiling regime is important for determining the performance of the heat transfer equipment for various industrial applications requiring high heat transfer rates, e.g., heat exchangers, boilers, chemical and nuclear reactors. Liquid can be present in the core of the flow channel in the form of entrained liquid droplets, especially immediately downstream of film dryout. These droplets are suspected to provide an important heat transfer mechanism as they impinge on the heated wall. The objective of the current study is to investigate liquid contact with the heated wall in this ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2018 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Cfd Modeling Of Smoke Movement In An Atrium, Robin Wu 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Cfd Modeling Of Smoke Movement In An Atrium, Robin Wu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the behavior of smoke movement in an atrium. Thus gives first responders and civilians in and out of building a better understanding

With the advancements of modern technology, computers and softwares make simulation models possible such as fire models to simulate fire and smoke movements. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) is used to conduct a series of atrium tests to investigate the effectiveness of smoke exhaust systems. FDS solves the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for low speed flows (Ma < 0.3) with an emphasis on smoke, heat transport and CO2 concentrations from fires. The default turbulence model used in FDS simulation is the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), which is the solution of Navier-Stokes equations at low speed.

The compartment tested was 9 ...


Effect Of Aerogel On The Thermal Performance Of Corrugated Composite Sandwich Structures, Jacob Dillon Chess 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effect Of Aerogel On The Thermal Performance Of Corrugated Composite Sandwich Structures, Jacob Dillon Chess

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Current insulation solutions across multiple industries, especially the commercial sector, can be bulky and ineffective when considering their volume. Aerogels are excellent insulators, exhibiting low thermal conductivities and low densities with a porosity of around 95%. Such characteristics make aerogels effective in decreasing conductive heat transfer within a solid. These requirements are crucial for aerospace and spaceflight applications, where sensitive components exist among extreme temperature environments. When implemented into insulation applications, aerogel can perform better than existing technology while using less material, which limits the amount of volume allocated for insulation. The application of these materials into composites can result ...


Steady-State Method To Measure The In-Plane Thermal Conductivity Of Thin Sheet Materials, Evgeny Pakhomenko, Andrew James Wildridge, Abraham Mathew Koshy, Souvik Das, Andreas Jung 2018 Coe College

Steady-State Method To Measure The In-Plane Thermal Conductivity Of Thin Sheet Materials, Evgeny Pakhomenko, Andrew James Wildridge, Abraham Mathew Koshy, Souvik Das, Andreas Jung

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A new generation of silicon pixel detectors is required to cope with the unprecedented luminosities at the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) in 2025. The HL-LHC provides a high radiation, high interaction rate environment for the innermost detector region of the CMS detector. This can lead to an uncontrolled increase in temperature of the detector that can destroy the silicon pixels. Moreover, too high operating temperature can add noise to the data obtained from the detector and can slow the read out cheap down. Therefore, the Phase II upgrade to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires ...


Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev 2018 Purdue University

Thermophotovoltaic Devices: Combustion Chamber Optimization And Modelling To Maximize Fuel Efficiency, Arnold Chris Toppo, Ernesto Marinero, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 110 billion cubic meters of natural gas (primarily methane), a potent greenhouse gas, are flared off for environmental and safety reasons. This process results in enough fuel to provide the combined natural gas consumption of Germany and France. The research team developed a thermophotovoltaic device to convert thermal energy to electricity at a high efficiency using proprietary emitters and combustion system. With the current focus being fuel efficiency and the combustion process, the assembly was simulated using ANSYS Fluent modelling software and the following parameters were optimized: air/fuel ratios, flow rates, and inlet sizes. Simultaneously the heat transfer ...


Opto-Thermal Characterization Of Plasmon And Coupled Lattice Resonances In 2-D Metamaterial Arrays, Vinith Bejugam 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Opto-Thermal Characterization Of Plasmon And Coupled Lattice Resonances In 2-D Metamaterial Arrays, Vinith Bejugam

Theses and Dissertations

Growing population and climate change inevitably requires longstanding dependency on sustainable sources of energy that are conducive to ecological balance, economies of scale and reduction of waste heat. Plasmonic-photonic systems are at the forefront of offering a promising path towards efficient light harvesting for enhanced optoelectronics, sensing, and chemical separations. Two-dimensional (2-D) metamaterial arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles arranged in polymer lattices developed herein support thermoplasmonic heating at off-resonances (near infrared, NIR) in addition to regular plasmonic resonances (visible), which extends their applicability compared to random dispersions. Especially, thermal responses of 2-D arrays at coupled lattice resonance (CLR) wavelengths were comparable ...


Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of A Mars Sample Return Earth-Entry Vehicle, Daniel A. Boyd 2018 Old Dominion University

Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of A Mars Sample Return Earth-Entry Vehicle, Daniel A. Boyd

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Because of the severe quarantine constraints that must be imposed on any returned extraterrestrial samples, the Mars sample return Earth-entry vehicle must remain intact through sample recovery. Vehicles returning on a Mars-Earth trajectory will attain velocities exceeding any that have been experienced by prior space exploration missions, with velocities approaching 14 km/s. Velocities as high as these will encounter significant heating during atmospheric re-entry to Earth.

The purpose of this study has been to systematically investigate the aerothermodynamic challenges that will result from a Mars sample return, Earth-entry vehicle design. The goal was to enable efficient estimation of maximum ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Zachary Wiese 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Zachary Wiese

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to the increasing prevalence of prescription medication over the past few

decades, pharmaceuticals have accumulated in various water sources. This has become a

public health concern because many pharmaceuticals have limited research on the effects

of chronic low-level exposure. According to the World’s Health Organization (WHO),

traces of pharmaceuticals products have been reported in different water sources such as

surface waters, wastewater, groundwater, and drinking water.[1] One pharmaceutical of

interest that has been detected in water sources is carbamazepine. Carbamazepine is a

common pharmaceutical prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders, neuropathic

pain, and various psychological disorders ...


Thermal Removal Of Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere: Energy Requirements And Scaling Issues, Ted von Hippel 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Thermal Removal Of Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere: Energy Requirements And Scaling Issues, Ted Von Hippel

Publications

I conduct a systems-level study of direct air capture of CO2 using techniques from thermal physics. This system relies on a combination of an efficient heat exchanger, radiative cooling, and refrigeration, all at industrial scale and operated in environments at low ambient temperatures. While technological developments will be required for such a system to operate efficiently, those developments rest on a long history of refrigeration expertise and technology, and they can be developed and tested at modest scale. I estimate that the energy required to remove CO2 via this approach is comparable to direct air capture by other techniques. The ...


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