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Evaluating The Scalability Of The Sonication Method Of Graphene Oxide Synthesis, Evan Dexter 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Evaluating The Scalability Of The Sonication Method Of Graphene Oxide Synthesis, Evan Dexter

Honors Program Projects

Graphene is a new material that was first isolated in 2004, and consists of one to a few atomic layers of carbon in a lattice sheet structure. Graphene has high tensile strength, high surface area, very low electrical resistance, and various other special properties that make it an excellent material for use in emerging technologies in the categories of electrical components, energy systems, and high strength applications. The production scale of graphene sheets and its variations is currently limited to laboratory use, with increasing research being conducted toward the development of manufacturing techniques of the material. We conducted experiments to ...


Design And Cost Analysis Of Acrylic Acid Plant, Adam Ferrier 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design And Cost Analysis Of Acrylic Acid Plant, Adam Ferrier

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this project was to model and design a plant to produce 75,000 tons per year of acrylic acid. Using the design in section B.9 of Richard Turton’s Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes as a starting point, a plant was designed based around the partial oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid. The final plant design produces about 86,000 tons per year of acrylic acid. Using an interest rate of 10%, the plant has a discounted cash flow rate of return of 32% over 2 years of startup and 10 years of operation ...


Effect Of Thiols For Nitrogen Reduction To Ammonia, Zakary R. Ford 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Thiols For Nitrogen Reduction To Ammonia, Zakary R. Ford

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ammonia is an important chemical used for fertilizers and also a potential carbon-free hydrogen storage medium. The Haber-Bosch process is the main production process, which requires large energy- and capital-input. Therefore, it is crucial to develop an alternate scalable synthesis that provides a less energy intensive and more economical route for synthetic ammonia production. In this paper, a 1Fe1Ni film was functionalized with C3OH and C6OH for the electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. This work will provide some insight into how thiol ligands can increase the selectivity of the catalyst for nitrogen reduction reaction and can be ...


Nanowire Based Adsorbents/Catalysts For Co2 Capture And Utilization., Apolo Nambo 2019 University of Louisville

Nanowire Based Adsorbents/Catalysts For Co2 Capture And Utilization., Apolo Nambo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Even today, the major energy source is fossil fuels, which release CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. CO2 capture, storage (CCS) and/or utilization (CCU) technologies are two routes to mitigate this problem. Sorbents are being investigated in either temperature swing or pressure swing absorption approaches for carbon capture from flue gases. Solid sorbent based technology is a promising one but suffers from slow kinetics, low capacity and need for high temperatures. Thus, new sorbent materials that can have good CO2 sorption capacity, recyclability are sought. Similarly, one of the utilization approaches for CO ...


Experimental Investigations On The Instantaneous Flow Structure In Circulating Fluidized Beds, Xiaoyang Wei 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Experimental Investigations On The Instantaneous Flow Structure In Circulating Fluidized Beds, Xiaoyang Wei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Knowing the instantaneous flow structure is of great importance for the understanding of gas-particle interaction and for the prediction of reactor performances. In this thesis, a systematic and comprehensive study has been conducted on the instantaneous flow structure in a narrow rectangular riser (19 mm in thickness, 114 mm in width and 7.6 m in height), in a cylindrical riser (76 mm in diameter, 10.2 m in height) and in a cylindrical downer (50 mm in diameter, 4.9 m in height). A wider range of operating conditions has been achieved in risers and downer with superficial gas ...


Hybrid Processing, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe 2019 Iowa State University

Hybrid Processing, Zhiyou Wen, Laura R. Jarboe

Laura R. Jarboe

Human societies have converted biomass into energy and products for millennia using both biochemical and thermochemical processes. Familiar examples of biochemical processing includes fermentation of sugar- or starch-rich crops and milk into sauerkraut, beer, wine, yogurt, and cheese. Familiar examples of thermochemical processing include baking and cooking of food and burning wood for heat and power.


Cnt-Tio2 Composites For Photocatalytic Oxidation Of Atmospheric Pollutants, Alison Chan 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Cnt-Tio2 Composites For Photocatalytic Oxidation Of Atmospheric Pollutants, Alison Chan

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

The design of catalysts for growth of carbon nanotubes is studied to develop recipes and mechanisms for controlled and scalable growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The objective of the study is to tune the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) by coupling to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Multiwalled CNTs have been shown to act as an electron sink when coupled with TiO2, thereby inhibiting electron-hole recombination and enhancing photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants. A test using acetaldehyde confirmed our findings in the field, where the loading ratio of 99 wt% TiO2 (1 wt% CNTs) has a high efficiency ...


Natural Gas Conversion Into Value Added Chemicals Using Solid Acid Catalysts, Swarom Ravindra Kanitkar 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Natural Gas Conversion Into Value Added Chemicals Using Solid Acid Catalysts, Swarom Ravindra Kanitkar

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Direct, non-oxidative conversion of natural gas to value-added chemicals has been identified as one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. Circumventing indirect and costly reforming steps is highly sought after and solid acids can play an important role in that.

The direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons and hydrogen can be catalyzed using “superacids” at < 450 °C. Reported superacid catalysts in solid, liquid, and gas phase included sulfated zirconia (SZ), HF-SbF5, FSO3H-SbF5, and HBr-AlBr3. Liquid and gas phase superacids presented difficulties in separation while the solid ones provided low yields. Here, we report a new class of Br-based solid superacids, AlBrx/H-ZSM-5 (“ABZ-5”, x = 1 or ...


Effects Of Chloride Ions In Acid-Catalyzed Biomass Dehydration Reactions In Polar Aprotic Solvents, Max A. Mellmer, Chotitath Sanpitakseree, Benginur Demir, Kaiwen Ma, William A. Elliott, Peng Bai, Robert L. Johnson, Theodore W. Walker, Brent H. Shanks, Robert M. Rioux, Matthew Neurock, James A. Dumesic 2019 University of Wisconsin–Madison

Effects Of Chloride Ions In Acid-Catalyzed Biomass Dehydration Reactions In Polar Aprotic Solvents, Max A. Mellmer, Chotitath Sanpitakseree, Benginur Demir, Kaiwen Ma, William A. Elliott, Peng Bai, Robert L. Johnson, Theodore W. Walker, Brent H. Shanks, Robert M. Rioux, Matthew Neurock, James A. Dumesic

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The use of polar aprotic solvents in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions can lead to improved reaction rates and selectivities. We show that further increases in catalyst performance in polar aprotic solvents can be achieved through the addition of inorganic salts, specifically chlorides. Reaction kinetics studies of the Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) show that the use of catalytic concentrations of chloride salts leads to a 10-fold increase in reactivity. Furthermore, increased HMF yields can be achieved using polar aprotic solvents mixed with chlorides. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) show that highly localized negative charge on Cl ...


Mechanism Study Of Shale Gas Conversion Via Chemical Looping And Heterocatalytic Processes, Lei Bai 2019 West Virginia University

Mechanism Study Of Shale Gas Conversion Via Chemical Looping And Heterocatalytic Processes, Lei Bai

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The shale gas revolution has significantly changed the energy landscape in US. The technical-feasible, energy-effective schemes for shale gas combustion and utilization, especially from remote resources, have attracted increasing interest due to expensive transportation/distribution cost. In this research, for the first time, chemical looping combustion (CLC) of methane with inherent CO2 capture, oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) and dehydro-aromatization (DHA) of ethane are systematically studied as promising alternatives at O2-rich, O2-lean and non-oxidative conditions, respectively.

Chemical looping combustion is bridging clean fuel combustion in energy production with inherent CO2 capture. CLC utilized an ...


Compression Set Improvement Of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates For High Temperature Tubing, Mitchell Valaitis 2019 The University of Akron

Compression Set Improvement Of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates For High Temperature Tubing, Mitchell Valaitis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It was hypothesized that increasing the curative level of the fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) used in manufacturing of thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) materials would decrease the compression set values of the TPV enough for it to be suitable as a flexible, lightweight alternative to high operating temperature thermoset rubber tubing currently being used for power steering hose. First, promising TPV formulations were identified by varying the polyamide (PA) and FKM used in a Brabender mixer. Four different types of polyamide and four different types of FKM were investigated, with two of the FKM types and one polyamide type identified as being promising ...


Improving The Delivered Specific Impulse Of Composite Rocket Propellant Through Alteration Of Chemical Composition: Methodology And Parameters For Characterization Of Propellant And Validation Of Simulation Software Common To The Amateur Rocketry Community, Isaac O'Brien, Austin Ryan 2019 The University of Akron

Improving The Delivered Specific Impulse Of Composite Rocket Propellant Through Alteration Of Chemical Composition: Methodology And Parameters For Characterization Of Propellant And Validation Of Simulation Software Common To The Amateur Rocketry Community, Isaac O'Brien, Austin Ryan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In this study, two solid composite rocket propellants were designed utilizing ProPEP, a rocket propellant formulation software common in the amateur and hobby rocketry communities. The two propellants were designed to optimize specific impulse relative to a literature propellant designed by 1020 Research Labs. The literature propellant was also tested in order to validate the design of experiment as well as the mixing and testing procedures. All three propellants, which includes the literature propellant RCS-P, and the two novel propellants AKR-P1 and AKR-P2 were characterized with static tests. The results of the static tests provide data on propellant performance and ...


Reduction Of Nox Emissions In A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sncr With In-Cylinder Injection Of Aqueous Urea, Anthony Timpanaro 2019 University of North Florida

Reduction Of Nox Emissions In A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sncr With In-Cylinder Injection Of Aqueous Urea, Anthony Timpanaro

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The subject of this study is the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea ((NH2)2CO) into the combustion chamber. A single cylinder diesel test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation.

Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen in order to ensure precise delivery of the reducing agent without the risk of any premature reactions taking place. Unlike direct in-cylinder injection of neat water, aqueous ...


Metabolic Engineering For Biocatalyst Robustness To Organic Inhibitors, Liam Royce, Laura R. Jarboe 2019 Iowa State University

Metabolic Engineering For Biocatalyst Robustness To Organic Inhibitors, Liam Royce, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Microbial production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals is often limited by inhibition of the biocatalyst, either by increasing concentrations of the product compound or by contaminant compounds in the biomass‐derived sugars. This inhibition can interfere with economically viable production. Here we discuss typical mechanisms of inhibition and methods for improving biocatalyst robustness. Inhibition often takes the form of inhibition of enzyme activity, depletion of cofactor pools, and membrane damage; methods are discussed for mitigating each of these types of inhibition. Various evolutionary schemes have been developed and implemented on a variety of inhibitory compounds, including butanol, acetic acid, furfural ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2018 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Under Oxygen-Free Conditions Using Novel Fluidizable Catalysts: Reactivity, Kinetic Modeling And Simulation Study, Samira Rostom 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation Under Oxygen-Free Conditions Using Novel Fluidizable Catalysts: Reactivity, Kinetic Modeling And Simulation Study, Samira Rostom

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Propane oxidative dehydrogenation (PODH) was studied using VOx/γAl2O3 and VOx/ZrO2-γAl2O3 (1:1 wt.%) catalysts, as well as consecutive propane injections under oxygen-free conditions. These catalysts were synthesized with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 wt.% vanadium loadings, and prepared using a wet saturation impregnation technique. Different characterization techniques were used to establish catalyst properties including NH3-TPD, pyridine FTIR and NH3-TPD kinetics. As well, PODH runs in the CREC Riser Simulator were developed under oxygen free atmospheres at 500-550°C, close to 1 atm., 10-20 ...


Effect Of Density Ratio On Velocity Fluctuations In Dispersed Multiphase Flow From Simulations Of Finite-Size Particles, Vahid Tavanashad, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox, Shankar Subramaniam 2018 Iowa State University

Effect Of Density Ratio On Velocity Fluctuations In Dispersed Multiphase Flow From Simulations Of Finite-Size Particles, Vahid Tavanashad, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox, Shankar Subramaniam

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Velocity fluctuations in the carrier phase and dispersed phase of a dispersed multiphase flow are studied using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation. The simulations correspond to a statistically homogeneous problem with an imposed mean pressure gradient and are presented for Rem=20 and a wide range of dispersed phase volume fractions (0.1≤ϕ≤0.4) and density ratios of the dispersed phase to the carrier phase (0.001≤ρp/ρf≤1000) . The velocity fluctuations in the fluid and dispersed phase at the statistically stationary state are quantified by the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. It is found ...


Selective Glucose Isomerization To Fructose Via Nitrogen-Doped Solid Base Catalyst Derived From Spent Coffee Grounds, Season S. Chen, Iris K.M. Yu, Dong-Wan Cho, Hocheol Song, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon 2018 Iowa State University

Selective Glucose Isomerization To Fructose Via Nitrogen-Doped Solid Base Catalyst Derived From Spent Coffee Grounds, Season S. Chen, Iris K.M. Yu, Dong-Wan Cho, Hocheol Song, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this work, glucose isomerization to fructose was conducted via a solid base biochar catalyst derived from spent coffee grounds and melamine. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra identified the majority of pyridinic nitrogen on the biochar surface, which imparted the strong base character of the catalyst. Activity of the catalyst was evidenced by fast conversion of glucose (12%) and high selectivity to fructose (84%) in 20 min at a moderate temperature (120 °C) compared to recently reported immobilized tertiary amines at comparable N concentrations (10-15 mol% relative to glucose). By increasing the reaction temperature to 160 °C, fructose yield ...


Photocatalytic Activity: Experimental Features To Report In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Md. Ariful Hoque, Marcelo I. Guzman 2018 University of Kentucky

Photocatalytic Activity: Experimental Features To Report In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, Md. Ariful Hoque, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a prominent area of research with major applications in solar energy conversion, air pollution mitigation, and removal of contaminants from water. A large number of scientific papers related to the photocatalysis field and its environmental applications are published in different journals specializing in materials and nanomaterials. However, many problems exist in the conception of papers by authors unfamiliar with standard characterization methods of photocatalysts as well as with the procedures needed to determine photocatalytic activities based on the determination of “apparent quantum efficiencies” within a wavelength interval or “apparent quantum yields” in the case of using monochromatic ...


Thin-Film Block Copolymers (Bcps) Self-Assembly As Versatile Patterning Scheme For Functional Nanomaterials, Le Zhang 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Thin-Film Block Copolymers (Bcps) Self-Assembly As Versatile Patterning Scheme For Functional Nanomaterials, Le Zhang

LSU Master's Theses

Nanopattern generation is required for building various structural entities in every production process that involves nanostructures. Advancing nanopatterning technologies play an important role in developing and broadening the current nanopatterning technologies to meet up with the ever-demanding requirements in the realm of smaller feature sizes, smoother line-edge roughness (LER) and facile pattern transfer in pursuit of faster computer processors, better electrocatalysts and more compact and intelligent sensors, etc. Conventionally, patterning needs are heavily relied on photolithography, a technique that dominate chip-making industry for more than 50 years. However conventional photolithography is bounded by inherent resolution limits and difficult to be ...


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