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Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Oxone Mediated Tempo-Oxidized Nano Cellulose Mixed-Matrix Membranes During Ultrafiltration And Hemodialysis, Kristyn Robling

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ninth leading cause of death in the United States is kidney disease, and hemodialysis is the process most commonly prescribed for treatment. It utilizes a selectively permeable membrane filter to remove toxins such as urea from the blood and retain necessary protein levels. However, traditional filters, such as cellulose triacetate, used during dialysis can be inefficient in terms of separation performance and reduction of fouling. Recent exploration of nanoparticles has resulted in the creation of Oxone Mediated TEMPO-Oxidized Nano Cellulose which has properties that are believed to increase hydrophilicity, increase tensile capacity, decrease membrane resistance and lower fouling, making ...


Polyball: A New Adsorbent For The Efficient Removal Of Endotoxin From Biopharmaceuticals, Sidharth Razdan, Jee-Ching Wang, Sutapa Barua 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Polyball: A New Adsorbent For The Efficient Removal Of Endotoxin From Biopharmaceuticals, Sidharth Razdan, Jee-Ching Wang, Sutapa Barua

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The presence of endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as a side product appears to be a major drawback for the production of certain biomolecules that are essential for research, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. In the biotechnology industry, gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli ) are widely used to produce recombinant products such as proteins, plasmid DNAs and vaccines. These products are contaminated with LPS, which may cause side effects when administered to animals or humans. Purification of LPS often suffers from product loss. For this reason, special attention must be paid when purifying proteins aiming a product as free as ...


A Volume-Filtered Description Of Compressible Particle-Laden Flows, Gregory S. Shallcross, Rodney O. Fox, Jesse Capecelatro 2019 University of Michigan

A Volume-Filtered Description Of Compressible Particle-Laden Flows, Gregory S. Shallcross, Rodney O. Fox, Jesse Capecelatro

Rodney O. Fox

In this work, we present a rigorous derivation of the volume-filtered viscous compressible Navier–Stokes equations for disperse two-phase flows. Compared to incompressible flows, many new unclosed terms appear. These terms are quantified via a posteriori filtering of two-dimensional direct simulations of shock-particle interactions. We demonstrate that the pseudo-turbulent kinetic energy (PTKE) systematically acts to reduce the local gas-phase pressure and consequently increase the local Mach number. Its magnitude varies with volume fraction and filter size, which can be characterized using a Knudsen number based on the filter size and inter-particle spacing. A transport equation for PTKE is derived and ...


Influence Of Flow Rate, Nozzle Speed, Pitch And The Number Of Passes On The Thickness Of S1805 Photoresist In Suss Microtec As8 Spray Coater, Rohan Sanghvi, Gyuseok Kim 2019 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Influence Of Flow Rate, Nozzle Speed, Pitch And The Number Of Passes On The Thickness Of S1805 Photoresist In Suss Microtec As8 Spray Coater, Rohan Sanghvi, Gyuseok Kim

Tool Data

S1805 positive photoresist has been deposited on single crystalline Si wafers using a Suss MicroTec Alta Spray. The influence of flow rate, nozzle speed, pitch and number of passes on the thickness of the photoresist was studied. Results show that the thickness of S1805 is linearly proportional to the flow rate and number of passes, and inversely proportional to the nozzle speed and pitch.


A Volume-Filtered Description Of Compressible Particle-Laden Flows, Gregory S. Shallcross, Rodney O. Fox, Jesse Capecelatro 2019 University of Michigan

A Volume-Filtered Description Of Compressible Particle-Laden Flows, Gregory S. Shallcross, Rodney O. Fox, Jesse Capecelatro

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this work, we present a rigorous derivation of the volume-filtered viscous compressible Navier–Stokes equations for disperse two-phase flows. Compared to incompressible flows, many new unclosed terms appear. These terms are quantified via a posteriori filtering of two-dimensional direct simulations of shock-particle interactions. We demonstrate that the pseudo-turbulent kinetic energy (PTKE) systematically acts to reduce the local gas-phase pressure and consequently increase the local Mach number. Its magnitude varies with volume fraction and filter size, which can be characterized using a Knudsen number based on the filter size and inter-particle spacing. A transport equation for PTKE is derived and ...


A Comprehensive Study Of Sequential Simulated Moving Bed: Purification Of Xylo-Oligosaccharides And Fructose-Glucose, Yan Li 2019 The University of Western Ontario

A Comprehensive Study Of Sequential Simulated Moving Bed: Purification Of Xylo-Oligosaccharides And Fructose-Glucose, Yan Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chromatographic separation is a promising alternative for separation and purification of sugars in industry. Simulated moving bed (SMB) technique has been proven as an efficient chromatographic separation method due to its enhanced productivity and purity, reduced solvent consumption, convenient operating control, and improved separation performance for some systems with low resolution and selectivity. The sequential simulated moving bed (SSMB) is a modification of the conventional SMB process, which currently has some applications for sugar separation due to its low solvent consumption. This work mainly investigates the design strategy of the innovative SSMB process and explore its advantages and disadvantages over ...


Factors Influencing Cellulosic Sugar Production During Acid-Catalyzed Solvent Liquefaction In 1,4-Dioxane, Arpa Ghosh, Robert C. Brown 2019 Iowa State University

Factors Influencing Cellulosic Sugar Production During Acid-Catalyzed Solvent Liquefaction In 1,4-Dioxane, Arpa Ghosh, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

This work explores the use of 1,4-dioxane to depolymerize cellulose into solubilized carbohydrates. This low boiling point solvent offers inexpensive and simple separation compared to higher boiling point solvents such as γ-valerolactone previously considered for acid-catalyzed depolymerization of cellulose. In the present study, several key reaction parameters, including reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and water content, were studied as major factors influencing sugar production from cellulose. A maximum yield of 51% for levoglucosan, the major product of cellulose depolymerization, was achieved at higher temperature, shorter reaction time and lower acid concentration in the ranges tested for these parameters. Addition of ...


Development Of A Co-Rotating, Fully Intermeshing Twin-Screw Extruder Model For The Extrusion Of Natural Fibre Suspensions, Keller J H George 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of A Co-Rotating, Fully Intermeshing Twin-Screw Extruder Model For The Extrusion Of Natural Fibre Suspensions, Keller J H George

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Twin-screw extruders are continuous processing devices that have been used in many industries concerned with the processing of multiphase fibrous suspensions, such as the food and pulping industries. While these devices offer great flexibility due to their modularity and customizability, optimization for specific applications can be challenging due to the unavailability of reliable, global models with accurate predictive capabilities. Consequently, this work seeks to eliminate this knowledge gap with the development of a novel global, composite model capable of predicting key process outputs for suspension-processing, phase-separating, co-rotating, fully-intermeshing twin-screw extruders. Creation of the novel global algorithm involved the modification of ...


Odour Reducing Microbial-Mineral Additive For Poultry Manure Treatment, Kajetan Kalus, Sebastian Opaliński, Devin Maurer, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Mariusz Korczyński, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska 2019 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences

Odour Reducing Microbial-Mineral Additive For Poultry Manure Treatment, Kajetan Kalus, Sebastian Opaliński, Devin Maurer, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Mariusz Korczyński, Zbigniew Dobrzański, Roman Kołacz, Beata Gutarowska

Somchai Rice

Poultry production systems are associated with emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gases, and particulate matter. Development of mitigation technologies for these emissions is important. Previous laboratory-scale research on microbial-mineral treatment has shown to be effective for mitigation of NH3, H2S and amines emissions from poultry manure. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of surface application of a microbial-mineral treatment for other important odorants, i.e., phenolics and sulfur-containing VOCs. Microbial-mineral litter additive consisting of 20% (w/w) of bacteria powder (six strains of heterotrophic bacteria) and 80% of ...


Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell 2019 Iowa State University

Determination Of Selected Aromas In Marquette And Frontenac Wine Using Headspace-Spme Coupled With Gc-Ms And Simultaneous Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Nanticha Lutt, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell

Somchai Rice

Understanding the aroma profile of wines made from cold climate grapes is needed to help winemakers produce quality aromatic wines. The current study aimed to add to the very limited knowledge of aroma-imparting compounds in wines made from the lesser-known Frontenac and Marquette cultivars. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with simultaneous olfactometry was used to identify and quantify selected, aroma-imparting volatile organic compounds (VOC) in wines made from grapes harvested at two sugar levels (22° Brix and 24° Brix). Aroma-imparting compounds were determined by aroma dilution analysis (ADA). Odor activity values (OAV) were also used to ...


Immobilization Of The Influenza A M2 Transmembrane Peptide In Virus Envelope−Mimetic Lipid Membranes: A Solid-State Nmr Investigation, Wenbin Luo, Sarah D. Cady, Mei Hong 2019 Iowa State University

Immobilization Of The Influenza A M2 Transmembrane Peptide In Virus Envelope−Mimetic Lipid Membranes: A Solid-State Nmr Investigation, Wenbin Luo, Sarah D. Cady, Mei Hong

Sarah Cady

The dynamic and structural properties of membrane proteins are intimately affected by the lipid bilayer. One property of membrane proteins is uniaxial rotational diffusion, which depends on the membrane viscosity and thickness. This rotational diffusion is readily manifested in solid-state NMR spectra as characteristic line shapes and temperature-dependent line narrowing or broadening. We show here that this whole-body uniaxial diffusion is suppressed in lipid bilayers mimicking the composition of eukaryotic cell membranes, which are rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. We demonstrate this membrane-induced immobilization on the transmembrane peptide of the influenza A M2 (AM2-TM) proton channel protein. At physiological temperature ...


Influence Of Naoh Concentration On Transfer Process Of Graphene, Francisco Saldana, Chengyu Wen, George Patrick Watson 2019 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Influence Of Naoh Concentration On Transfer Process Of Graphene, Francisco Saldana, Chengyu Wen, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

The process of transferring a monolayer of graphene using two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution unto a silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated Si chip using electrochemistry was performed. The transfer process is crucial for the delamination of a continuous graphene monolayer film from copper foil. After examining and inspecting the integrity of the graphene monolayer, it was observed that the lower concentration to NaOH led to slower rate of hydrogen bubble generation; this condition was found to be less destructive and yielded a graphene film with fewer visible tears.


Evaluation Of Biohydrogen Production From Co-Fermentation Of Carbohydrates And Proteins, Emmanuel Andrew Tepari Jr, 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluation Of Biohydrogen Production From Co-Fermentation Of Carbohydrates And Proteins, Emmanuel Andrew Tepari Jr,

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of this study was to examine volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from a proteinaceous substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) for a pH range of 5 – 9, and to further assess its impact on hydrogen production in a co-fermentation process using starch and BSA at different ratios. The established optimum conditions for VFA production from BSA were an initial pH of 8, incubation time of 3 days and an operating temperature of 37 ℃. Using these fermentation conditions, the stoichiometric reactions that describe the anaerobic degradation of BSA were investigated. A methodology that describes organic acid production from BSA by ...


Gelation Suppression In Raft Polymerization, Fang-Yi Lin, Mengguo Yan, Eric W. Cochran 2019 Iowa State University

Gelation Suppression In Raft Polymerization, Fang-Yi Lin, Mengguo Yan, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this article, we extend the understanding of gelation suppression in reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization in systems with long primary chains and high crosslinker content, regimes which have been mostly overlooked to date. Using a model methacrylate system, the gel point, apparent propagation rate constants, and polymer architectures are seen to vary in a systematic fashion. By combining our experimental data with several related studies, we introduce a new phenomenological parameter, the “crosslinking tendency,” that incorporates monomer concentration and excess functionality to universally describe the gelation suppression in both RAFT- and atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)-controlled radical polymerization ...


Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown 2019 Iowa State University

Pre-Methylation Of Lignin To Improve Storage Stability Of Oil Produced By Solvent Liquefaction, Jae-Young Kim, Parinaz Hafezi-Sefat, Sarah D. Cady, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown

Sarah Cady

In this study, we methylated hydroxyl groups (phenolic hydroxyl: Phe-OH and aliphatic hydroxyl: Aliph-OH) in soda lignin (SL) prior to solvent liquefaction to improve storage stability of the resulting oil. We investigated two methylating reagents, dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), for selective Phe-OH and total hydroxyl group (Phe-OH and Aliph-OH) blocking. Samples of SL, DMS-SL, and DMC-SL were depolymerized into oils under supercritical ethanol (350 °C). Both methylated lignins produced higher amounts of oils and smaller amounts of char compared to untreated SL due to suppressed charring reactions. Oil produced from SL had relatively higher functional group contents ...


Effect Of Surfactant, Oil:Water Ratio And Temperature On The Rheology Of Emulsion-Suspension Complex Fluids: Implications For Oil-Based Drilling Fluids, Gilles Landry Numkam 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effect Of Surfactant, Oil:Water Ratio And Temperature On The Rheology Of Emulsion-Suspension Complex Fluids: Implications For Oil-Based Drilling Fluids, Gilles Landry Numkam

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Drilling fluids are non-Newtonian mixtures that play a critical role in the timely and successful completion of oil and gas wells. In the particular case of offshore operations, proper design of drilling fluids is of paramount importance in the constant quest to lower break-even prices. Most downhole problems are directly or in-directly related to the rheological and physical properties of drilling fluids, thereby calling for a better understanding of the underlying changes of these properties with respect to drilling fluid composition and external conditions.

The current stance in the design of drilling fluids involves the selection of components and their ...


Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Renal Specific Rnai Delivery By Fibrillar Nanoparticle Excipients, Sam Wong

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to manipulate the phenotype of an organism by silencing the expression of specific genes and is viewed as a highly promising platform for treating undruggable targets and disorders where small molecule drugs and antibodies would fail. However, development of RNAi based therapies has faced major barriers including cellular and tissue-specific uptake of the Small Interfering RNA (siRNA). Utilizing different nanoparticles as RNAi excipients, cellular uptake and gene silencing potency can be greatly improved. The research in Dr. McDevitt groups has fibrillar carbon nanotubes (CNT) as carriers for siRNA for gene silencing in vitro ...


Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu 2019 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Analyzing Evolution Of Rare Events Through Social Media Data, Xiaoyu Lu

Dissertations

Recently, some researchers have attempted to find a relationship between the evolution of rare events and temporal-spatial patterns of social media activities. Their studies verify that the relationship exists in both time and spatial domains. However, few of those studies can accurately deduce a time point when social media activities are most highly affected by a rare event because producing an accurate temporal pattern of social media during the evolution of a rare event is very difficult. This work expands the current studies along three directions. Firstly, we focus on the intensity of information volume and propose an innovative clustering ...


Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-lee Annique Chintersingh 2019 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Improving Boron For Combustion Applications, Kerri-Lee Annique Chintersingh

Dissertations

Boron has received much attention as a potential additive to explosives and propellants due to its high theoretical gravimetric and volumetric heating values. The challenge, however, is that boron particles tend to agglomerate, have lengthy ignition delays and very low combustion rates. Prior research indicates that boron’s long ignition delays are due to its inhibiting naturally occurring oxide layer, impeding the diffusion of reactants for oxidation. For combustion, current studies report that boron particles have two consecutive stages, but the actual reaction mechanism is poorly understood. Despite many years of relevant research, quantitative combustion data on micron-sized boron particles ...


Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander 2019 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander

Dissertations

A novel dissolving microneedle array system is developed to investigate permeation of a sumatriptan succinate formulations through the skin aided by iontophoresis. Three formulations consisting of hydrophilic, positively charged drug molecules encapsulated in a water-soluble biologically suitable polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), have been accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The microneedle systems are fabricated with 600 pyramid-shaped needles, each 500 µm tall, on a 0.785-cm2 circular array. In vitro transdermal studies with minipig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells show > 68% permeation of sumatriptan over a 24-hour period. A combination of microneedle and electrical current ...


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