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Ethanol To Ethyl Acetate, Kerri Heuser, Vinson Liao, Neha Narain 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Ethanol To Ethyl Acetate, Kerri Heuser, Vinson Liao, Neha Narain

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Ethyl acetate is a specialty chemical with dominant use as a solvent, and total production exceeding 3.7MMT annually in 2017. Current production methods mainly utilize petrochemical-derived feedstocks of ethanol and acetic acid that undergo Fischer Esterification to produce ethyl acetate. This is traditionally considered to be an unsustainable process. A new startup company, Greenyug, based out of Santa Barbara, CA, has proposed a new design that solely utilizes fermentation ethanol, and, as a result, is considered sustainable. Greenyug describes (in accordance to US Patents US8562921B2, US9079851B2, and US9447018B2) a two-step reaction pathway that first partially dehydrogenates ethanol to acetaldehyde ...


Culture-Derived Human Platelets For Clinical Transfusion, Alayna Choo, Gabrielle Leon, Susanna Jaramillo 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Culture-Derived Human Platelets For Clinical Transfusion, Alayna Choo, Gabrielle Leon, Susanna Jaramillo

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Platelets are a vital component of human blood due to their role in clotting. Despite the incredible importance of platelets for human survival, there is very little supply of platelets to meet the clinical demand. Currently, platelets are only supplied from donations, whether through whole blood or apheresis. Therefore, there is a need for ex vivo means of producing platelets at a price that is competitive with the current market price. This project seeks to meet 65% of the demand for platelets in Philadelphia by producing platelets ex vivo in a process that utilizes shear stress to induce platelet formation ...


Process For Sustainably Sourced 2,5 Furan Dicarboxylic Acid, Michael Bell, David Gutierrez, Kevin Wang 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Process For Sustainably Sourced 2,5 Furan Dicarboxylic Acid, Michael Bell, David Gutierrez, Kevin Wang

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Currently, there is a significant market for terephthalic acid (TPA)--a precursor for the ubiquitous plastic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). As consumer preferences swing to more environmentally-friendly products, sustainable plastics, such as polyethylene furanoate (PEF), become more widely desired. In this project, the authors suggest a process for the synthesis of 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), a diacid used in the synthesis of PEF, through a multi-step procedure following current industrial practices for TPA oxidation and patents from three sources: Synvina, a joint venture between Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) Company and DuPont Industrial Biosciences (DuPont), and Eastman. The first step of ...


Chemical Recycling Of Plastics By Dissolution, Pensiri Naviroj, James Treacy, Conrad Urffer 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Recycling Of Plastics By Dissolution, Pensiri Naviroj, James Treacy, Conrad Urffer

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

There is significant upside potential for the recycling of plastic wastes, especially for waste polyethylene plastic bags. Plastic containers and packaging have the most tonnage of waste plastics sent to landfills, and there are limited number of communities collecting single-use polyethylene plastics bags for recycling. This project explores the dissolution-precipitation technique as a viable plastics recycling method. Beginning with a feed assumed to be primarily low density polyethylene (LDPE), plastic bag waste is cleaned and 50 tons per day of this cleaned LDPE waste enters the main process. The proposed design includes a dissolution and precipitation vessel. The design is ...


Production Of Single Cell Protein And Astaxanthin Using Methanol As Carbon Source, Corinne Pillarella, Craig Jahnke, Brielle Weiner 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Production Of Single Cell Protein And Astaxanthin Using Methanol As Carbon Source, Corinne Pillarella, Craig Jahnke, Brielle Weiner

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Singlecell protein (SCP) is the biomass of unicellular organisms, such as bacteria or yeast, which is used commonly as a food source for animals. With a high protein content, a broad amino acid profile, and the ability to produce essential organic compounds and vitamins, SCP is a promising alternative to other classical sources of animal feed. Several processes have been developed to manufacture SCP for use in feedstocks for the sustainable farming of fish and other aquatic life, or aquaculture, which is one of the fastest growing food markets in the world. Here, a process is presented for the production ...


Conversion Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids From Algae Biomass Produced Biodiesel, Matthew Peters, Jacquelyn Stokes, Ryan Tu 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Conversion Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids From Algae Biomass Produced Biodiesel, Matthew Peters, Jacquelyn Stokes, Ryan Tu

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

As the effects of global warming continue to escalate, carbon-neutral fuels are becoming sought after alternatives to traditional fossil fuels. Biodiesel is a promising source of carbon-neutral fuel that can be produced from organisms such as algae. A new process has been proposed by Yadav for algal oil extraction using sonic waves and carbon dioxide microbubbles (Yadav et al., 2019). Although a novel idea, it currently struggles to compete economically with other types of biodiesel production as well as traditional food sources. However, a small subsection of the FAMEs is able to be further processed into Omega-3 fatty acids. These ...


Synthesis Of Green Hydrocarbons Using The Air To Fuels™ Technology, Tyler Durkin, Kyle Kersey, James Paolini 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Synthesis Of Green Hydrocarbons Using The Air To Fuels™ Technology, Tyler Durkin, Kyle Kersey, James Paolini

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Our AIR TO FUELS™ project is based off a process designed by Carbon Engineering by the same name which seeks to synthesize liquid fuels from capture carbon dioxide captured from the atmosphere. The need for reduced greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is more urgent than ever and becoming more dire by the day. Still, our society’s reliance on liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel is deeply rooted in our infrastructure and certainly not changing quickly or soon. The AIR TO FUELS™ process seeks to tackle both of these problems by taking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere ...


Future Api Manufacturing Excellence, Emily Cunningham, Rachel Wilson, Marc Geagea 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Future Api Manufacturing Excellence, Emily Cunningham, Rachel Wilson, Marc Geagea

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Many pharmaceutical manufacturing processes are costly, time-intensive, and energy-intensive. Due to the high operational costs, optimization of these processes would result in large economic savings. Fluid bed granulation takes inputs of air temperature, air flow rate, phase duration, binder spray rate, and inlet air humidity. A series of simulations were run to determine optimal operating conditions. It was determined that the process parameters should be limited to the following to meet product standards and reduce costs: air flow rate of 2800 (m3/h), inlet air temperature of 55˚C for spraying and 75˚C for drying, phase duration 124 ...


Fabrication Of Enhanced Carbon Based Biocompatible And Biodegradable Microelectronic Materials Derived From Lignocellulosic Biomass, Harrison Thomas Hawkins 2019 Rowan University

Fabrication Of Enhanced Carbon Based Biocompatible And Biodegradable Microelectronic Materials Derived From Lignocellulosic Biomass, Harrison Thomas Hawkins

Theses and Dissertations

The development of materials capable of harmlessly being broken down and removed from the body is a crucial step towards the development of short-term application electronic biomedical implants. Once developed, these implants, known as bioresorbable electronics, will open a wide array of temporary applications in the field of biomedical implantable devices. Necessary to the operation of bioresorbable electronics within the body is a power source that is similarly biocompatible and biodegradable. To this end, enhanced carbon-based materials and a bio-ionic liquid were developed for the fabrication of a preliminary implantable and bioresorbable battery and tested for functional properties. Electrodes were ...


Green Glycol: A Novel 2-Step Process, Ingemar Falcones, Sarah Golden, Maria Kowalchuk 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Green Glycol: A Novel 2-Step Process, Ingemar Falcones, Sarah Golden, Maria Kowalchuk

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Ethylene glycol demand is growing rapidly, particularly in the global polyethylene terephthalate markets.¹ Traditional production of non-renewable ethylene glycol involves steam cracking of ethane or the methanol-to-olefin process to obtain ethylene.6 In response to environmental movements, Coca-Cola® began creating ethylene glycol from renewably sourced ethanol, by producing the ethylene oxide intermediate in a two-step reaction process.² Novel research at Leiden University, entitled Direct conversion of ethanol into ethylene oxide on gold based catalysts, explores a catalyst which produces ethylene oxide in one step, showing potential for a more efficient renewable process.³ This project explores the scaling ...


Fluid Transport In Porous Media For Engineering Applications, Eric M. Benner 2019 University of New Mexico

Fluid Transport In Porous Media For Engineering Applications, Eric M. Benner

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

This doctoral dissertation presents three topics in modeling fluid transport through porous media used in engineering applications. The results provide insights into the design of fuel cell components, catalyst and drug delivery particles, and aluminum- based materials. Analytical and computational methods are utilized for the modeling of the systems of interest. Theoretical analysis of capillary-driven transport in porous media show that both geometric and evaporation effects significantly change the time dependent behavior of liquid imbibition and give a steady state flux into the medium. The evaporation–capillary number is significant in determining the time-dependent behavior of capillary flows in porous ...


Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly 2019 Iowa State University

Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly

Marna Yandeau-Nelson

Background: Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids.

Results: To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acylACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were ...


Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi 2019 University of Maine

Influence Of Mechanical Properties Of Paper Coating On The Crack At The Fold Problem, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi Najafi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paper coating layers are subject to various stresses and deformations in many converting processes such as calendering, printing, slitting, and folding of the paper. In some cases, products may crack during folding to generate a defect called cracking at the fold (CAF). The parameters that influence these defects are not well understood. The overall goal of this thesis is to better understand the CAF behavior as related to material properties of the coating layer.

A method was developed to produce free-standing pigmented coating layers thick enough to be tested in bending as well as tension. The mechanical properties of these ...


Evaluating The Scalability Of The Sonication Method Of Graphene Oxide Synthesis, Evan Dexter 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Evaluating The Scalability Of The Sonication Method Of Graphene Oxide Synthesis, Evan Dexter

Honors Program Projects

Graphene is a new material that was first isolated in 2004, and consists of one to a few atomic layers of carbon in a lattice sheet structure. Graphene has high tensile strength, high surface area, very low electrical resistance, and various other special properties that make it an excellent material for use in emerging technologies in the categories of electrical components, energy systems, and high strength applications. The production scale of graphene sheets and its variations is currently limited to laboratory use, with increasing research being conducted toward the development of manufacturing techniques of the material. We conducted experiments to ...


Task 1: Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Eric Beitle 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Task 1: Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Eric Beitle

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As human space exploration increases, the development of a more efficient potable water treatment system suited for spacecraft becomes crucial. This Waste-management Education Research Consortium (WERC) challenge was designed to explore the viability of microbial control through the utilization of silver ions as a biocide for possible integration into the Tranquility Node 3 water purification system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Current systems using iodine risk causing hyperthyroidism from overexposure; however, silver can be safely ingested without this side effect. After researching silver delivery methods including electrochemical ion production, controlled release, or a combination of the two, our team ...


Removal And Reuse Of Phosphorus As A Fertilizer From Cafo Runoff, Kristin Moore 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Removal And Reuse Of Phosphorus As A Fertilizer From Cafo Runoff, Kristin Moore

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Eutrophication is the process in which nutrient saturated waters promote algal blooms on the surface of the water. This limits the amount of dissolved oxygen content in the water, effectively limiting the range of species that can survive in a body of water. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can contribute to this issue. The animals in a CAFO produce large amounts of nutrient-rich waste streams that can enter natural waterways if not properly managed and increase the problem of eutrophication. The ability to treat these waste streams and recover the excess nutrients would allow for not only the reduction of ...


Recovery Of Water And Salt From Hyper-Saline Mine Water Using Freeze Crystallization, Clara Somerville 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recovery Of Water And Salt From Hyper-Saline Mine Water Using Freeze Crystallization, Clara Somerville

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Freezerbacks researched, designed, and economically evaluated a full-scale freeze crystallization process as well as two alternative full-scale processes: 5 stage multiple effect evaporation and reverse osmosis. All three processes were designed to treat hyper-saline mine water that was sent into evaporation pond systems. These systems were designed for Freeport-McMoRan’s mines that need to treat impacted water.

The Freeport-McMoRan copper mine in Miami, Arizona was visited in order to gain insight about the problem. The mine is no longer actively mining copper and is in the process of reclaiming land used. An essential part of restoring the land is ...


Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Jennifer Gaines 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Jennifer Gaines

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As human space exploration increases, the development of a more efficient potable water treatment system suited for spacecraft becomes crucial. This Waste-management Education Research Consortium (WERC) challenge was designed to explore the viability of microbial control through the utilization of silver ions as a biocide for possible integration into the Tranquility Node 3 water purification system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Current systems using iodine risk causing hyperthyroidism from overexposure; however, silver can be safely ingested without this side effect. After researching silver delivery methods including electrochemical ion production, controlled release, or a combination of the two, our team ...


Recovery Of Water And Salt From Hyper-Saline Mine Water Using Freeze Crystallization, Gabrielle Casey 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Recovery Of Water And Salt From Hyper-Saline Mine Water Using Freeze Crystallization, Gabrielle Casey

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Freezerbacks researched, designed, and economically evaluated a full-scale freeze crystallization process as well as two alternative full-scale processes: 5 stage multiple effect evaporation and reverse osmosis. All three processes were designed to treat hyper-saline mine water that was sent into evaporation pond systems. These systems were designed for Freeport-McMoRan’s mines that need to treat impacted water.

The Freeport-McMoRan copper mine in Miami, Arizona was visited in order to gain insight about the problem. The mine is no longer actively mining copper and is in the process of reclaiming land used. An essential part of restoring the land is ...


Design And Cost Analysis Of Acrylic Acid Plant, Adam Ferrier 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design And Cost Analysis Of Acrylic Acid Plant, Adam Ferrier

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this project was to model and design a plant to produce 75,000 tons per year of acrylic acid. Using the design in section B.9 of Richard Turton’s Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes as a starting point, a plant was designed based around the partial oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid. The final plant design produces about 86,000 tons per year of acrylic acid. Using an interest rate of 10%, the plant has a discounted cash flow rate of return of 32% over 2 years of startup and 10 years of operation ...


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