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The Design Of An Innovative Automotive Suspension For Formula Sae Racing Applications, Jared Darius 2019 Liberty University

The Design Of An Innovative Automotive Suspension For Formula Sae Racing Applications, Jared Darius

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis details an analytical approach to an innovative suspension system design for implementation to the Formula SAE collegiate competition. It focuses specifically on design relating to geometry, mathematical modeling, energy element relationships, and computer analysis and simulation to visualize system behavior. The bond graph approach is utilized for a quarter car model to facilitate understanding of the analytical process, then applied to a comparative analysis between two transverse half car models. The second half car model contains an additional transverse linkage with a third damper, and is compared against the baseline of the first half car model without the ...


Autonomous Watercraft Simulation And Programming, Nicholas J. Savino 2019 Lynchburg College

Autonomous Watercraft Simulation And Programming, Nicholas J. Savino

Student Scholar Showcase

Automation of various modes of transportation is thought to make travel more safe and efficient. Over the past several decades, advances to semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles have led to advanced autopilot systems on planes and boats, and an increasing popularity of self-driving cars. We predicted the motion of an autonomous vehicle using simulations in Python. The simulation models the motion of a small scale watercraft, which can then be built and programmed using an Arduino Microcontroller. We examined different control methods for a simulated rescue craft to reach a target. We also examined the effects of different factors, such as ...


Low Cost Vehicular Autonomy Using Radar And Gps, Nathan Jessurun, Ryan Gordon, Danielle Fredette 2019 Cedarville University

Low Cost Vehicular Autonomy Using Radar And Gps, Nathan Jessurun, Ryan Gordon, Danielle Fredette

Danielle Fredette, Ph.D.

This presentation describes a subset of the systems devised for this year's autonomous golf cart senior design project. Our goal is to explore the possibilities of low cost autonomy using only radar and GPS for environmental sensing and navigation. Although autonomous and semi-autonomous ground vehicles are a relatively new reality, prototypes have been a subject of engineering research for decades, often utilizing an array of sensors and sensor fusion techniques. State of the art autonomous ground vehicle prototypes typically use a combination of LIDAR and other distance sensors (such as radar or sonar) as well as cameras and GPS ...


Low Cost Vehicular Autonomy Using Radar And Gps, Nathan Jessurun, Ryan Gordon, Danielle Fredette 2019 Cedarville University

Low Cost Vehicular Autonomy Using Radar And Gps, Nathan Jessurun, Ryan Gordon, Danielle Fredette

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

This presentation describes a subset of the systems devised for this year's autonomous golf cart senior design project. Our goal is to explore the possibilities of low cost autonomy using only radar and GPS for environmental sensing and navigation. Although autonomous and semi-autonomous ground vehicles are a relatively new reality, prototypes have been a subject of engineering research for decades, often utilizing an array of sensors and sensor fusion techniques. State of the art autonomous ground vehicle prototypes typically use a combination of LIDAR and other distance sensors (such as radar or sonar) as well as cameras and GPS ...


A Fea/Cfd Study Of Heat Transfer To Semi-Trailer Disc Brake Wheel-End Components During A Braking Event, Justin P. Fisher 2019 Grand Valley State University

A Fea/Cfd Study Of Heat Transfer To Semi-Trailer Disc Brake Wheel-End Components During A Braking Event, Justin P. Fisher

Masters Theses

Foundation air disc brakes bring Class 8 semi-trailers to a stop by converting kinetic energy into thermal energy. Recently, side skirts have been added to the underside of semi-trailers to improve fuel economy. The reduction in airflow under the trailer they create has potential to increase brake temperatures by reducing convection heat transfer. This will require an increase in conduction and radiation heat transfer to the surrounding wheel-end parts. Additional heat transfer to the surrounding parts could increase the temperatures in the hub and bearing to damaging levels.

CFD analyses were developed to model the airflow under the semi-trailer with ...


Torsional Stiffness Of A Race Car, Reiley A. Schraeger, Cameron Kao, Raymond Deng, Omar Roman 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Torsional Stiffness Of A Race Car, Reiley A. Schraeger, Cameron Kao, Raymond Deng, Omar Roman

Mechanical Engineering

Torsional stiffness plays a major role in any road vehicle. To understand torsional stiffness of a vehicle and make future iterations and improvements, a proper torsional stiffness jig is required to prove accurate and useful data. This report encompasses the new and improved testing jig and potential improvement ideas for more accurate results. With real data result relating to FEA calculations, designers can be confident in the FEA changes to torsional stiffness is accurate and will yield the probably results they desired. This report shows the methodology, manufacturing process and testing procedure to use on any Baja or SAE vehicle ...


Myopic Versus Farsighted Behaviors In A Low-Carbon Supply Chain With Reference Emission Effects, Jun Wang, Xianxue Cheng, Xinyu Wang, Hongtao Yang, Shuhua Zhang 2019 Tianjin University of Finance and Economics

Myopic Versus Farsighted Behaviors In A Low-Carbon Supply Chain With Reference Emission Effects, Jun Wang, Xianxue Cheng, Xinyu Wang, Hongtao Yang, Shuhua Zhang

Math Faculty Publications

The increased carbon emissions cause relatively climate deterioration and attract more attention of governments, consumers, and enterprises to the low-carbon manufacturing. This paper considers a dynamic supply chain, which is composed of a manufacturer and a retailer, in the presence of the cap-and-trade regulation and the consumers’ reference emission effects. To investigate the manufacturer’s behavior choice and its impacts on the emission reduction and pricing strategies together with the profits of both the channel members, we develop a Stackelberg differential game model in which the manufacturer acts in both myopic and farsighted manners. By comparing the equilibrium strategies, it ...


Combined Trajectory, Propulsion, And Battery Mass Optimization For Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aircraft, Nathaniel S. Gates, Kevin R. Moore, Andrew Ning, John D. Hedengren 2019 Brigham Young University

Combined Trajectory, Propulsion, And Battery Mass Optimization For Solar-Regenerative High-Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aircraft, Nathaniel S. Gates, Kevin R. Moore, Andrew Ning, John D. Hedengren

All Faculty Publications

Combined optimization of propulsion system design, flight trajectory planning and battery mass optimization for solar-regenerative high-altitude long endurance (SRHALE) aircraft through a sequential iterative approach yields an increase of 20.2% in the end-of-day energy available on the winter solstice at 35 deg N latitude, resulting in an increase in flight time of 2.36 hours. The optimized flight path is obtained by using nonlinear model predictive control to solve flight and energy system dynamics over a 24 hour period with a 15 second time resolution. The optimization objective is to maximize the total energy in the system while flying ...


The Effect Of Communication And Vehicle Properties On The Search Performance Of A Swarm Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Jenna E. Newcomb, Andrew Ning 2019 Brigham Young University

The Effect Of Communication And Vehicle Properties On The Search Performance Of A Swarm Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Jenna E. Newcomb, Andrew Ning

All Faculty Publications

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm allows for a more time-efficient method of searching a specified area than a single UAV or piloted plane. There are a variety of factors that affect how well an area is surveyed. We specifically analyzed the effect both vehicle properties and communication had on the swarm search performance. We used non-dimensionalization to examine the effect vehicle properties had on search performance so the results can be applied to any domain size with any number and type of vehicle. We found that even if vehicles could only sense 10% of the grid area at any ...


Anti-Roll Bar For Sae Baja Vehicle, Jennifer Bulgrin, Zachary A. Gnabah, Scott P. Toth 2019 The University of Akron

Anti-Roll Bar For Sae Baja Vehicle, Jennifer Bulgrin, Zachary A. Gnabah, Scott P. Toth

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This report explores the need to improve the Zips Baja vehicle handling performance. This will be achieved by designing an anti-roll bar system for the rear suspension of the Zips Baja vehicle to decrease the turning radius of the vehicle. The project develops specific goals to achieve increased performance, goes through the engineering design cycle to create a prototype, evaluate its effectiveness, optimize the design through several iterations, and design a final solution. After sub-functions have been determined, conceptual ideas for completing all sub-functions were evaluated and a conceptual design was selected to proceed into the embodiment design phase. Once ...


Comparison Of Drag Area Estimation Using Natural Coast Down And Constant Speed Test Methods, Cem Baki Mr 2019 West Virginia University

Comparison Of Drag Area Estimation Using Natural Coast Down And Constant Speed Test Methods, Cem Baki Mr

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Currently in US, more than 26 percent of the total GHG emissions comes from transportation and mostly from heavy duty vehicles. Similarly, the European Council stated that 25 percent of the emissions comes from heavy duty transportation and they expect it to be further increased in the future. However, with the new coming regulations US EPA and European Council aiming to reduce the emissions by 80 percent in US and 60 percent in EU. In order to keep track and control the emissions, both authorities published new regulations and testing methods for certifying the new vehicles.

Aerodynamic testing is one ...


Intelligent Transportation Systems, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Powertrain Control, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, Model Predictive Control, Hadi Kazemi 2019 West Virginia University

Intelligent Transportation Systems, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Powertrain Control, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, Model Predictive Control, Hadi Kazemi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Information obtainable from Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) provides the possibility of improving the safety and efficiency of vehicles at different levels. In particular, such information has the potential to be utilized for prediction of driving conditions and traffic flow, which allows us to improve the performance of the control systems in different vehicular applications, such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) powertrain control and Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). In the first part of this work, we study the design of an MPC controller for a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system, which is an automated application that provides the drivers ...


Carbon Fiber Racing Wheel, Megan Sanok, Melissa Furdak, Sydney Schipani 2019 The University of Akron

Carbon Fiber Racing Wheel, Megan Sanok, Melissa Furdak, Sydney Schipani

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Industry today thrives off of competition; everybody wants their product to be the best. Across almost every field of manufacturing and design, there is a pattern of factors that companies strive for when producing their specialized products. The most effective companies can create a commodity that is relatively inexpensive, easy to manufacture, and has the ability to meet high standards. As engineers, it is ingrained in us that there is always room for improvement, and that we have been given the tools to make it happen.

When evaluating what needed to be improved in our daily lives, the SAE Zips ...


Sae Baja Custom Caliper And Upright Design, Katelynn R. Kise 2019 The University of Akron

Sae Baja Custom Caliper And Upright Design, Katelynn R. Kise

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The Zips Baja Off-Road Racing team had a successful 2018 season however some aspects of the car needed to be updated and improved for the 2019 season. This reports captures the design cycle performed to improve the cost, integration, and reliability of the front braking caliper and upright.


Reduction Of Nox Emissions In A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sncr With In-Cylinder Injection Of Aqueous Urea, Anthony Timpanaro 2019 University of North Florida

Reduction Of Nox Emissions In A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sncr With In-Cylinder Injection Of Aqueous Urea, Anthony Timpanaro

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The subject of this study is the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea ((NH2)2CO) into the combustion chamber. A single cylinder diesel test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation.

Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen in order to ensure precise delivery of the reducing agent without the risk of any premature reactions taking place. Unlike direct in-cylinder injection of neat water, aqueous ...


Effect Of Sensor Errors On Autonomous Steering Control And Application Of Sensor Fusion For Robust Navigation, Shuvodeep Bhattacharjya 2019 Michigan Technological University

Effect Of Sensor Errors On Autonomous Steering Control And Application Of Sensor Fusion For Robust Navigation, Shuvodeep Bhattacharjya

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Autonomous steering control is one the most important features in autonomous vehicle navigation. The nature and tuning of the controller decides how well the vehicle follows a defined trajectory. A poorly tuned controller can cause the vehicle to oversteer or understeer at turns leading to deviation from a defined path. However, controller performance also depends on the state–feedback system. If the states used for controller input are noisy or has bias / systematic error, the navigation performance of the vehicle is affected irrespective of the control law and controller tuning. In this report, autonomous steering controller analysis is done for ...


Experimental And Numerical Simulation Of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test On Borosilicate Glass, Mayank K. Bagaria 2019 Michigan Technological University

Experimental And Numerical Simulation Of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test On Borosilicate Glass, Mayank K. Bagaria

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This study is an extension to the design of ceramic materials component exposed to bullet impact. Owing to the brittle nature of ceramics upon bullet impact, shattered pieces behave as pellets flying with different velocities and directions, damaging surrounding components. Testing to study the behavior of ceramics under ballistic impact can be cumbersome and expensive. Modeling the set-up through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) makes it economical and easy to optimize. However, appropriately incorporating the material in modeling makes laboratory testing essential. Previous efforts have concentrated on simulating crack pattern developed during 0.22 caliber pellet impact on Borosilicate glass. A ...


Reinventing The Wheel, Esther K. Unti, Ahmed Z. Shorab, Patrick B. Kragen, Adam M. Menashe 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Reinventing The Wheel, Esther K. Unti, Ahmed Z. Shorab, Patrick B. Kragen, Adam M. Menashe

Mechanical Engineering

Reinventing the Wheel selected tires and designed wheels for the 2018 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo Formula SAE combustion vehicle. Available tire options were evaluated for steady-state and transient performance as well as vehicle integration. A single-piece composite wheel with hollow spokes was designed to meet stiffness, strength, and tolerance requirements. A detailed study of wheel loading and geometric structural efficiency was performed. Finite element analysis was used to iterate the geometry and laminate. A two-piece male mold was designed and machined to manufacture the wheel. Removable silicone inserts were used to create the hollow spokes.


Object Detection, Classification, And Tracking For Autonomous Vehicle, Milan Aryal 2018 Grand Valley State University

Object Detection, Classification, And Tracking For Autonomous Vehicle, Milan Aryal

Masters Theses

The detection and tracking of objects around an autonomous vehicle is essential to operate safely. This paper presents an algorithm to detect, classify, and track objects. All objects are classified as moving or stationary as well as by type (e.g. vehicle, pedestrian, or other). The proposed approach uses state of the art deep-learning network YOLO (You Only Look Once) combined with data from a laser scanner to detect and classify the objects and estimate the position of objects around the car. The Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) feature descriptor is used to match the same object from one ...


Advances In Automotive Conversion Coatings During Pretreatment Of The Body Structure: A Review, Mark Doerre, Larry Hibbitts, Gabriela Patrick, Nelson K. Akafuah 2018 University of Kentucky

Advances In Automotive Conversion Coatings During Pretreatment Of The Body Structure: A Review, Mark Doerre, Larry Hibbitts, Gabriela Patrick, Nelson K. Akafuah

Institute of Research for Technology Development Faculty Publications

Automotive conversion coatings consist of layers of materials that are chemically applied to the body structures of vehicles before painting to improve corrosion protection and paint adhesion. These coatings are a consequence of surface-based chemical reactions and are sandwiched between paint layers and the base metal; the chemical reactions involved distinctly classify conversion coatings from other coating technologies. Although the tri-cationic conversion coating bath chemistry that was developed around the end of the 20th century remains persistent, environmental, health, and cost issues favor a new generation of greener methods and materials such as zirconium. Environmental forces driving lightweight material selection ...


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