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Cislunar Trajectory Generation With Sun-Exclusion Zone Constraints Using A Genetic Algorithm And Direct Method Hybridization, Joshua A. Ostman 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Cislunar Trajectory Generation With Sun-Exclusion Zone Constraints Using A Genetic Algorithm And Direct Method Hybridization, Joshua A. Ostman

Theses and Dissertations

Space missions to the Moon have received renewed interest in recent decades. Science missions continue to be sent to the Moon, and several space agencies have aspirations of establishing a human presence on the Moon. With the increased number of artificial objects in cislunar space, the problem of tracking these objects arises. Optical sensors are able to track these objects in deep space. However, optical sensors cannot track objects that are close to the Sun as viewed from the observer. This unobservable region is the Sun-exclusion zone (SEZ). This research attempts to create optimal Moon-Earth transfers which are completely in ...


Micrometeoroid Impacts On Periodic Spacecraft Structures, Victoria West, Luis Buades, Hanson-Lee Harjono 2019 Purdue University

Micrometeoroid Impacts On Periodic Spacecraft Structures, Victoria West, Luis Buades, Hanson-Lee Harjono

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Atomic Oxygen On Patch Antenna Performance And Lifetime, Max J. Barta 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Effects Of Atomic Oxygen On Patch Antenna Performance And Lifetime, Max J. Barta

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The space environment is a volatile and challenging place for satellites to survive in. For Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites, atomic oxygen (AO) is a constant corrosive effect that degrades the outer surface of satellites over long durations. Atomic oxygen exists in the atmosphere between 180 and 675 km and has a relatively high energy at 4.5 eV, which allows AO to break molecular bonds in materials on the surfaces of spacecraft. As the number and complexity of CubeSat missions increase, there is an increased risk that AO degradation on commercial off the shelf parts (COTS), such as antenna ...


Suitability Testing For Possum Scientist-Astronaut Candidates Using The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator With An Iva Spacesuit, Pedro J. Llanos, Victor Kitmanyen, Erik Seedhouse, Ryan L. Kobrick 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Suitability Testing For Possum Scientist-Astronaut Candidates Using The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator With An Iva Spacesuit, Pedro J. Llanos, Victor Kitmanyen, Erik Seedhouse, Ryan L. Kobrick

Ryan L. Kobrick

This paper evaluates key functional data parameters that must be considered for suborbital spaceflight participants wearing pressurized suits for intravehicular activity (IVA). Data parameters of an analog spacesuit worn in an analog flight environment were obtained from 40 civilian participants using the Suborbital Space Flight Simulator (SSFS) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) while donning Final Frontier Design’s (FFD) fully pressurized third-generation spacesuit as part of their training for Project PoSSUM (the Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere Project). The physiological data collected included: blood pressure, electrocardiograms, heart rate, grip strength, and skin temperature. These parameters were measured using ...


Mapping Of Iva Spacesuit Mobility: Design Observations And Functionality, Gavin C. James, Ryan L. Kobrick, Victor Kitmanyen 2019 Embry-RIddle Aeronautical University

Mapping Of Iva Spacesuit Mobility: Design Observations And Functionality, Gavin C. James, Ryan L. Kobrick, Victor Kitmanyen

Ryan L. Kobrick

The SUIT Lab at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University is a joint student-faculty project utilizing multiple high altitude pressure garments to investigate suited crew capabilities within a spacecraft during simulated spaceflight missions. The testing environment within the SUIT lab includes the use of suits in a lowfidelity capsule cabin mockup with a horizontally situated launch-positioned chair simulator. Standard videography and analytical video software are used to determine levels of achievement in ergonomic range of motion and comfort design across multiple spacesuits. Comparative analysis and testing provide data supporting the requirement for the use of particular spacesuits inside proposed commercial launch vehicles. Results ...


Human Factors For Small Net Habitable Volume: The Case For A Close-Quarter Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Timothy J. Disher, Ryan L. Kobrick, Jason P. Kring 2019 University of Houston

Human Factors For Small Net Habitable Volume: The Case For A Close-Quarter Space Habitat Analog, Victor Kitmanyen, Timothy J. Disher, Ryan L. Kobrick, Jason P. Kring

Ryan L. Kobrick

Increasing efforts in sending humans to Mars calls for greater considerations of the ways in which vehicle and habitat design can influence crew performance and behavioral health.


Space Suit Concepts And Vehicle Interfaces For The Constellation Program, D. M. Klaus, J. Metts, R. Kobrick, M. Mesloh, T. Monk, et al. 2019 University of Colorado Boulder

Space Suit Concepts And Vehicle Interfaces For The Constellation Program, D. M. Klaus, J. Metts, R. Kobrick, M. Mesloh, T. Monk, Et Al.

Ryan L. Kobrick

In carrying out NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration, a number of different environments will be encountered that will require the crew to wear a protective space suit. Specifically, four suited mission phases are identified as Launch, Entry & Abort profiles, Contingency 0g (orbital) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Lunar Surface EVA and Martian Surface EVA. This study presents conceptual design solutions based on a previous architecture assessment that defined space suit operational requirements for four proposed space suit configuration options. In addition, a subset of vehicle interface requirements are defined for enabling umbilical and physical connections between the suits and the various ...


Thermal And Orbital Analysis Of Darkness Cubesat, Katie Dickey 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Thermal And Orbital Analysis Of Darkness Cubesat, Katie Dickey

Honors Program Projects

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is sending a 3U CubeSat into LEO to search for a 3.5 keV photon corresponding to the decay of a theorized dark matter particle called the sterile neutrino. The CubeSat will encounter environmental variations while in orbit that can be computed through an orbital analysis using System’s Tool Kit. In order to minimize thermal noise readout, improve optical resolution, and increase bandwidth, the sensors must be kept below 170K while taking data. This temperature is difficult to achieve due to radiation from the Sun and the Earth’s albedo radiation. Through the thermal analysis ...


Task 1: Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Eric Beitle 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Task 1: Silver-Based Microbial Check Valve For Spacecraft Potable Water Systems, Eric Beitle

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As human space exploration increases, the development of a more efficient potable water treatment system suited for spacecraft becomes crucial. This Waste-management Education Research Consortium (WERC) challenge was designed to explore the viability of microbial control through the utilization of silver ions as a biocide for possible integration into the Tranquility Node 3 water purification system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Current systems using iodine risk causing hyperthyroidism from overexposure; however, silver can be safely ingested without this side effect. After researching silver delivery methods including electrochemical ion production, controlled release, or a combination of the two, our team ...


System Architecture Design And Development For A Reusable Lunar Lander, Chad Batten, Camille E. Bergin, Aaron Crigger, Darryl Harris, Gillian Suzanne McGlothin 2019 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

System Architecture Design And Development For A Reusable Lunar Lander, Chad Batten, Camille E. Bergin, Aaron Crigger, Darryl Harris, Gillian Suzanne Mcglothin

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Thermal Management Design Tool System For Cubesat Applications, Siakrishna Reddy Kanumuru 2019 Morehead State University

Thermal Management Design Tool System For Cubesat Applications, Siakrishna Reddy Kanumuru

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Science at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by Saikrishna Reddy Kanumuru on April 26, 2019.


Limited-Duty-Cycle Satellite Formation Control Via Differential Drag, Talon A. Townley 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Limited-Duty-Cycle Satellite Formation Control Via Differential Drag, Talon A. Townley

Theses and Dissertations

As CubeSat formation flying missions relying on differential drag control become increasingly common, additional missions based on this control must be studied. A mission planning tool is investigated to control the relative spacing of a CubeSat formation where differential drag is the sole control mechanism. System performance is investigated under varying perturbations and a range of system parameters, including limiting the control duty cycle. Optimal solutions based on using a pseudo spectral numerical solver, GPOPS-II, to minimize maneuver time. This study includes the development of a mission planning tool to work with the modeled CubeSat mission to calculate optimal maneuvers ...


Comprehensive Study Of Study Of Optimal Synergetic Skip Entries With Dynamic Thrust Vectoring Control, Jeremiah M. Webb 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Comprehensive Study Of Study Of Optimal Synergetic Skip Entries With Dynamic Thrust Vectoring Control, Jeremiah M. Webb

Theses and Dissertations

The atmospheric skip entry has been studied since London's presentation in 1962 describing a more fuel efficient means of altering the orbital inclination of satellites. Since London, research over the decades since has traversed many aspects of this field with varying degrees of success. The present research employs the use of modern optimal control software, complex dynamics with minor simplifications, and thrust vectoring to re-approach the aerocruise atmospheric skip entry. Using the aerodynamics of the X-34, the aerocruise problem is first compared to the un-powered aeroglide where it is shown that the aerocruise is capable of increasing the inclination ...


Computational Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Satellite Trans-Atmospheric Skip Entry Survivability, John J. Runco 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Computational Aerothermodynamic Analysis Of Satellite Trans-Atmospheric Skip Entry Survivability, John J. Runco

Theses and Dissertations

Computational aerothermodynamic analysis is presented for a spacecraft in low Earth orbit performing an atmospheric skip entry maneuver. Typically, atmospheric reentry is a terminal operation signaling mission end-of-life and, in some instances, executed for spacecraft disposal. A variation on reentry – skip entry – is an aeroassisted trans-atmospheric maneuver in which a spacecraft utilizes the effects of aerodynamic drag in order to reduce energy prior to a terminal entry, pinpoint a targeted entry, or change orbital elements such as inclination. Spacecraft performing a skip entry enable new modes of maneuver to enhance operations in nominal or possibly contested mission environments. The present ...


Optimal And Robust Neural Network Controllers For Proximal Spacecraft Maneuvers, B. Cole George 2019 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimal And Robust Neural Network Controllers For Proximal Spacecraft Maneuvers, B. Cole George

Theses and Dissertations

Recent successes in machine learning research, buoyed by advances in computational power, have revitalized interest in neural networks and demonstrated their potential in solving complex controls problems. In this research, the reinforcement learning framework is combined with traditional direct shooting methods to generate optimal proximal spacecraft maneuvers. Open-loop and closed-loop feedback controllers, parameterized by multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks, are developed with evolutionary and gradient-based optimization algorithms. Utilizing Clohessy- Wiltshire relative motion dynamics, terminally constrained fixed-time, fuel-optimal trajectories are solved for intercept, rendezvous, and natural motion circumnavigation transfer maneuvers using three different thrust models: impulsive, finite, and continuous. In addition ...


Advanced Inflatable De-Orbit Solutions For Derelict Satellites And Orbital Debris, Aman Chandra, Greg Wilburn, Jekan Thanga 2019 University of Arizona

Advanced Inflatable De-Orbit Solutions For Derelict Satellites And Orbital Debris, Aman Chandra, Greg Wilburn, Jekan Thanga

Space Traffic Management Conference

The exponential rise in small-satellites and CubeSats in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) poses important challenges for future space traffic management. At altitudes of 600 km and lower, aerodynamic drag accelerates de-orbiting of satellites. However, placement of satellites at higher altitudes required for constellations pose important challenges. The satellites will require on-board propulsion to lower their orbits to 600 km and let aerodynamic drag take-over. In this work we analyze solutions for de-orbiting satellites at altitudes of up to 3000 km. We consider a modular robotic de-orbit device that has stowed volume of a regular CubeSat. The de-orbit device would be ...


Lasers For Communication And Coordination Control Of Spacecraft Swarms, Himangshu Kalita, Leonard Dean Vance, Vishnu Reddy, Jekan Thanga 2019 University of Arizona

Lasers For Communication And Coordination Control Of Spacecraft Swarms, Himangshu Kalita, Leonard Dean Vance, Vishnu Reddy, Jekan Thanga

Space Traffic Management Conference

Swarms of small spacecraft offer whole new capabilities in Earth observation, global positioning and communications compared to a large monolithic spacecraft. These small spacecraft can provide bigger apertures that increase gain in communication antennas, increase area coverage or effective resolution of distributed cameras and enable persistent observation of ground or space targets. However, there remain important challenges in operating large number of spacecrafts at once. Current methods would require a large number of ground operators monitor and actively control these spacecraft which poses challenges in terms of coordination and control which prevents the technology from scaled up in cost-effective manner ...


Nanosat Tracking And Identification Techniques And Technologies, Mark A. Skinner 2019 Aerospace

Nanosat Tracking And Identification Techniques And Technologies, Mark A. Skinner

Space Traffic Management Conference

Nanosats (and CubeSats, ‘Smallsats’, etc.) are of order 10 cm in size, and are at or near the limits of what can be tracked and characterized, using existing space surveillance assets. Additionally, given the CubeSat form-factor, they are often launched in large numbers (scores), and can be virtually identical. Thus are they difficult to track and to identify.

We have identified a number of technologies that future nanosat missions could employ that would enhance the trackability and/or identification of their satellites when on-orbit. Some of these technologies require active illumination of the satellite with electromagnetic energy, either in the ...


Astria Ontology: Open, Standards-Based, Data-Aggregated Representation Of Space Objects, Jennie Wolfgang, Kathleen Krysher, Michael Slovenski, Unmil P. Karadkar, Shiva Iyer, Moriba K. Jah 2019 The University of Texas at Austin

Astria Ontology: Open, Standards-Based, Data-Aggregated Representation Of Space Objects, Jennie Wolfgang, Kathleen Krysher, Michael Slovenski, Unmil P. Karadkar, Shiva Iyer, Moriba K. Jah

Space Traffic Management Conference

The necessity for standards-based ontologies for long-term sustainability of space operations and safety of increasing space flights has been well-established [6, 7]. Current ontologies, such as DARPA’s OrbitOutlook [5], are not publicly available, complicating efforts for their broad adoption. Most sensor data is siloed in proprietary databases [2] and provided only to authorized users, further complicating efforts to create a holistic view of resident space objects (RSOs) in order to enhance space situational awareness (SSA).

The ASTRIA project is developing an open data model with the goal of aggregating data about RSOs, parts, space weather, and governing policies in ...


Enhancing Suborbital Science Through Better Understanding Of Wind Effects, Pedro Llanos, Diane Howard 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Enhancing Suborbital Science Through Better Understanding Of Wind Effects, Pedro Llanos, Diane Howard

Space Traffic Management Conference

This paper highlights the importance of understanding some key factors, such as winds effects, trajectory and vehicle parameters variations in order to streamline the space vehicle operations and enhance science in the upper mesosphere at about 85 km. Understanding these effects is crucial to refine current space operations and establish more robust procedures. These procedures will involve training new space operators to conduct and coordinate space operations in class E above FL600 airspace within the Air Traffic Organization (ATO).

Space vehicles such as Space Ship Two can spend up to 6 minutes in class E airspace above FL600 after launch ...


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