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Navigation, Guidance, Control and Dynamics Commons

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Long And Short-Range Air Navigation On Spherical Earth, Nihad E. Daidzic 2019 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Long And Short-Range Air Navigation On Spherical Earth, Nihad E. Daidzic

Nihad E. Daidzic, Dr.-Ing., D.Sc., ATP, CFII, MEI

Global range air navigation implies non-stop flight between any two airports on Earth. Such effort would require airplanes with the operational air range of at least 12,500 NM which is about 40-60% longer than anything existing in commercial air transport today. Air transportation economy requires flying shortest distance, which in the case of spherical Earth are Orthodrome arcs. Rhumb-line navigation has little practical use in long-range flights, but has been presented for historical reasons and for comparison. Database of about 50 major international airports from every corner of the world has been designed and used in testing and route ...


Improving Airplane Touchdown Control By Utilizing The Adverse Elevator Effect, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D. 2019 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Improving Airplane Touchdown Control By Utilizing The Adverse Elevator Effect, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D.

Nihad E. Daidzic, Dr.-Ing., D.Sc., ATP, CFII, MEI

The main objective of this original research article is to understand the short-term dynamic behavior of the transport-category airplane during landing flare elevator control application. Increasing the pitch angle to arrest the sink rate, the elevator will have to produce negative lift to rotate the airplane’s nose upward. This has an immediate adverse effect of initially accelerating airplane downward. A mathematical model of landing flare based on the flat-Earth longitudinal dynamics of rigid airplane was developed which is realistic only on very short time-scales as pitch stiffness and damping were neglected. Pilot control scenarios using impulse and step elevator ...


Achieving Global Range In Future Subsonic And Supersonic Airplanes, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D. 2019 AAR Aerospace Consulting, LLC

Achieving Global Range In Future Subsonic And Supersonic Airplanes, Nihad E. Daidzic Ph.D., Sc.D.

Nihad E. Daidzic, Dr.-Ing., D.Sc., ATP, CFII, MEI

No commercial airplane in service today is able to fly half great-circle distances over the globe and achieve the non-stop or the global range to any antipodal location on Earth. A subsonic jetliner has the optimum cruising speed at Mach numbers approaching the drag divergence Mach number while still preserving relatively high aerodynamic efficiency. Various fuel-flow laws were used to investigate the cruise performance of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The effect of wind and aircraft weight and how it affects the optimal cruising airspeed was investigated. Of all different operational cruising techniques, the cruise-climb at high Mach numbers is the ...


Autonomous Watercraft Simulation And Programming, Nicholas J. Savino 2019 Lynchburg College

Autonomous Watercraft Simulation And Programming, Nicholas J. Savino

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

Automation of various modes of transportation is thought to make travel more safe and efficient. Over the past several decades advances to semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles have led to advanced autopilot systems on planes and boats and an increasing popularity of self-driving cars. We simulated the motion of an autonomous vehicle using computational models. The simulation models the motion of a small-scale watercraft, which can then be built and programmed using an Arduino Microcontroller. We examined different control methods for a simulated rescue craft to reach a target. We also examined the effects of different factors, such as various biases ...


Stability Analysis Of A More General Class Of Systems With Delay-Dependent Coefficients, Chi Jin, Keqin Gu, Islam Boussaada, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu 2019 Laboratoire des Signaux et Syst`emes (L2S) CentraleSup´elec-CNRS-Universit´e Paris Sud, 3 rue Joliot- Curie 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France.

Stability Analysis Of A More General Class Of Systems With Delay-Dependent Coefficients, Chi Jin, Keqin Gu, Islam Boussaada, Silviu-Iulian Niculescu

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

This paper presents a systematic method to analyse the stability of systems with single delay in which the coefficient polynomials of the characteristic equation depend on the delay. Such systems often arise in, for example, life science and engineering systems. A method to analyze such systems was presented by Beretta and Kuang in a 2002 paper, but with some very restrictive assumptions. This work extends their results to the general case with the exception of some degenerate cases. It is found that a much richer behavior is possible when the restrictive assumptions are removed. The interval of interest for the ...


Algorithm For Geodetic Positioning Based On Angle-Of-Arrival Of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasts, Richard Allen Gross 2019 Grand Valley State University

Algorithm For Geodetic Positioning Based On Angle-Of-Arrival Of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasts, Richard Allen Gross

Masters Theses

This paper develops a non-precision, three-dimensional, geodetic positioning algorithm for airborne vehicles. The algorithm leverages the proliferation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) equipped aircraft, utilizing them as airborne navigation aids to generate an RF Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) and Angle-of-Elevation (AOE) based geodetic position. The resulting geodetic position can serve as a redundant navigation system for use during locally limited Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) availability, be used to validate on-board satellite navigation systems in an effort to detect local spoofing attempts, and be used to validate ADS-B position reports.

The navigation algorithm is an implementation of an Extended Kalman Filter ...


End To End Satellite Servicing And Space Debris Management, Aman Chandra, Himangshu Kalita, Roberto Furfaro, Jekan Thanga 2019 Univ. of Arizona

End To End Satellite Servicing And Space Debris Management, Aman Chandra, Himangshu Kalita, Roberto Furfaro, Jekan Thanga

Space Traffic Management Conference

There is growing demand for satellite swarms and constellations for global positioning, remote sensing and relay communication in higher LEO orbits. This will result in many obsolete, damaged and abandoned satellites that will remain on-orbit beyond 25 years. These abandoned satellites and space debris maybe economically valuable orbital real-estate and resources that can be reused, repaired or upgraded for future use. Space traffic management is critical to repair damaged satellites, divert satellites into warehouse orbits and effectively deorbit satellites and space debris that are beyond repair and salvage. Current methods for on-orbit capture, servicing and repair require a large service ...


Space Dynamics Laboratory Payload Challenge: Autonomous Water Sampling Uav, Thomas Wheeler, Zachary Williams, Joseph Stack 2019 The University of Akron

Space Dynamics Laboratory Payload Challenge: Autonomous Water Sampling Uav, Thomas Wheeler, Zachary Williams, Joseph Stack

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The following report has been completed over the course of the Fall 2018 and Spring 2019 semesters at The University of Akron by Joseph P. Stack (Aerospace Systems Engineering), Thomas J. Wheeler (Mechanical Engineering) and Zachary M. Williams (Mechanical Engineering). The purpose of this project was to create a payload system for the Akronauts Rocket Design Team to use at the Intercollegiate Rocket Engineering Competition (IREC) Spaceport America Cup. The Competition as a challenge that is sponsored by Space Dynamics Laboratory specifically regarding payload systems. The challenge in very open-ended and allows student to identify their own scientific experiment and ...


Urban Flow And Small Unmanned Aerial System Operations In The Built Environment, Kevin A. Adkins 2019 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Urban Flow And Small Unmanned Aerial System Operations In The Built Environment, Kevin A. Adkins

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has put forth a set of regulations (Part 107) that govern small unmanned aerial system (sUAS) operations. These regulations restrict unmanned aircraft (UA) from flying over people and their operation to within visual line of sight (VLOS). However, as new applications for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are discovered, their capabilities improve, and regulations evolve, there is an increasing desire to undertake urban operations, such as urban air mobility, package delivery, infrastructure inspection, and surveillance. This built environment poses new weather hazards that include enhanced wind shear and turbulence. The smaller physical dimensions, lower mass and ...


Low Level Turbulence Detection For Airports, Anthony O' Connor, Derek Kearney 2019 Dublin Institute of Technology

Low Level Turbulence Detection For Airports, Anthony O' Connor, Derek Kearney

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Abstract—— Low level wind shear and turbulence present a serious safety risk to aircraft during the approach, landing and take-off phases. Despite many advances in on-board and ground based warning systems. Wind shear remains a formidable force that coupled with a microburst can overpower any aircraft. Aviation reports have concluded that pilots need to have improved information in relation to tailwinds, wind shear and wind variations on approach and during the landing phases. Low level wind shear continues to cause disruption, delays and contribute to aircraft crashes. As recently as 2016, two Boeing aircraft crashed while attempting a Go-around manoeuver ...


Design And Simulation Of Regional Navigation Constellation With Optimized Mean Dop Based On Hybrid Geo And Igso Satellites, firooz keyvani, Seyed Hosein Torabi 2019 Iran University of Science & Technology

Design And Simulation Of Regional Navigation Constellation With Optimized Mean Dop Based On Hybrid Geo And Igso Satellites, Firooz Keyvani, Seyed Hosein Torabi

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

In this article, achieving an optimal layout of satellite constellation has been investigated with the aim of navigation (positioning) and with the least amount of error in a region coverage. In navigation, a parameter defined as DOP specifies influences of the geometry of satellite placement in space on position error. Less DOP means more precise navigation, and an attempt has been made in this study to minimize it. In the optimization phase, using genetic algorithm, the number of moments in which coverage is less than four reached zero and then the DOP parameter was minimized. Subsequently, the issue was studied ...


Global Aviation System: Towards Sustainable Development, Marina P. Bonser Dr. 2019 Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation

Global Aviation System: Towards Sustainable Development, Marina P. Bonser Dr.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Aviation around the world has integrated into a global system. As the integration process continues, more aspects and levels of it need to be lead towards the sustainable development of the whole system via advancing strategic management, global communication proficiency, and technological expertise. It becomes essential to enrich global language (English) proficiency with cross-cultural communication competence not only for communication in the air but also for airport security, passenger and cargo services, aircraft and equipage engineering, building, and maintenance. Nowadays lower levels of management need more advanced strategic thinking and problem solving skills, and higher levels of management need global ...


Generating Exploration Mission-3 Trajectories To A 9:2 Nrho Using Machine Learning, Esteban Guzman 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Generating Exploration Mission-3 Trajectories To A 9:2 Nrho Using Machine Learning, Esteban Guzman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this thesis is to design a machine learning algorithm platform that provides expanded knowledge of mission availability through a launch season by improving trajectory resolution and introducing launch mission forecasting. The specific scenario addressed in this paper is one in which data is provided for four deterministic translational maneuvers through a mission to a Near Rectilinear Halo Orbit (NRHO) with a 9:2 synodic frequency. Current launch availability knowledge under NASA’s Orion Orbit Performance Team is established by altering optimization variables associated to given reference launch epochs. This current method can be an abstract task and ...


Optimal Attitude Control Of A Two-Cubesat Virtual Telescope In A Highly Elliptical Orbit, reza pirayeshshirazinezhad 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Optimal Attitude Control Of A Two-Cubesat Virtual Telescope In A Highly Elliptical Orbit, Reza Pirayeshshirazinezhad

Shared Knowledge Conference

This paper investigates a novel approach for attitude control of 2 satellites acting as a virtual telescope. The Virtual Telescope for X-ray Observations (VTXO) is a mission exploiting 2 6U-CubeSats operating in a precision formation. The goal of the VTXO project is to develop a space-based, X-ray imaging telescope with high angular resolution precision. In this scheme, one CubeSat carries a diffractive lens and the other one carries an imaging device to support a focal length of 100 m. In this mission, the attitude control algorithms are required to keep the two spacecraft in alignment with the Crab Nebula observations ...


Pulsed Fiber Optics Lasers As Highly Sensitive Sensors, Hanieh Afkhamiardakani 2018 University of New Mexico

Pulsed Fiber Optics Lasers As Highly Sensitive Sensors, Hanieh Afkhamiardakani

Shared Knowledge Conference

An interferometer or resonator is a device in which optical beams of specific frequencies circulate with minimal losses. These losses are completely compensated by the gain inside a laser resonator. A small perturbation introduced inside the laser can affect its frequency, which in turns becomes a metric of that perturbation. The perturbation is usually caused by an electric or magnetic field, rotation, acceleration, nonlinear index of refraction etc. Tiny changes of optical frequency are monitored by superimposing the laser field and a reference field (from the same laser) on a detector. This technique requires creating a laser in which two ...


Simplex Control Methods For Robust Convergence Of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectories In The Constrained Urban Environment, Michael D. Zollars 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

Simplex Control Methods For Robust Convergence Of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectories In The Constrained Urban Environment, Michael D. Zollars

Theses and Dissertations

Constrained optimal control problems for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) have long suffered from excessive computation times caused by a combination of constraint modeling techniques, the quality of the initial path solution provided to the optimal control solver, and improperly defining the bounds on system state variables, ultimately preventing implementation into real-time, on-board systems. In this research, a new hybrid approach is examined for real-time path planning of SUAS. During autonomous flight, a SUAS is tasked to traverse from one target region to a second target region while avoiding hard constraints consisting of building structures of an urban environment. Feasible ...


Optimal Finite Thrust Guidance Methods For Constrained Satellite Proximity Operations Inspection Maneuvers, Eric R. Prince 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

Optimal Finite Thrust Guidance Methods For Constrained Satellite Proximity Operations Inspection Maneuvers, Eric R. Prince

Theses and Dissertations

Algorithms are developed to find optimal guidance for an inspector satellite operating nearby a resident space object (RSO). For a non-maneuvering RSO, methods are first developed for a satellite subject to maximum slew rates to conduct an initial inspection of an RSO, where the control variables include the throttle level and direction of the thrust. Second, methods are developed to optimally maneuver a satellite with on/off thrusters into a natural motion circumnavigation or teardrop trajectory, subject to lighting and collision constraints. It is shown that for on/off thrusters, a control sequence can be parameterized to a relatively small ...


Orbit And Attitude Observability Using Accelerometer Measurements, David K. Geller, Rachit Bhatia 2018 Utah State University

Orbit And Attitude Observability Using Accelerometer Measurements, David K. Geller, Rachit Bhatia

Rachit Bhatia

Under the ideal assumptions of point mass gravity model and zero non-gravitational accelerations, it is shown that an onboard gravity model and measurements from an accelerometer-based gradiometer consisting of three 3-axis onboard accelerometers can provide simultaneous orbital and attitude observability. Orbital and attitude navigation based on traditional dead-reckoning is not considered. Instead, gravity field gradients from onboard accelerometer measurements are correlated to onboard gravity maps, and used to conduct spacecraft orbital position, velocity and attitude observability analysis. The analysis is extended to higher order gravity models, where it is shown that measurements from just one 3-axis accelerometer can provide orbital ...


Quadrotor Swarm Arena (Quasar) Development Of A Swarm Control Testbed, Shane T. Stebler, William MacKunis 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Quadrotor Swarm Arena (Quasar) Development Of A Swarm Control Testbed, Shane T. Stebler, William Mackunis

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

Swarm control systems are increasingly popular in the robotics industry and academia due to their many potential applications. The goal of the Quadrotor Swarm Arena (QuaSAr) project is to construct a quadrotor swarm control testbed to provide researchers with the tools needed to experimentally investigate this emerging science. This testbed is equipped with a motion capture system, test control station, and numerous quadrotor UAVs. MATLAB-Simulink is utilized for control law development, data processing, and test control. This configuration allows researchers to test developing control law in a 'plug and play' manner as control development and test control are all completed ...


Considerations For Atmospheric Measurements With Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Jamey D. Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Adam L. Houston, Suzanne Weaver Smith 2018 Oklahoma State University

Considerations For Atmospheric Measurements With Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Jamey D. Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Adam L. Houston, Suzanne Weaver Smith

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper discusses results of the CLOUD-MAP (Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics) project dedicated to developing, fielding, and evaluating integrated small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for enhanced atmospheric physics measurements. The project team includes atmospheric scientists, meteorologists, engineers, computer scientists, geographers, and chemists necessary to evaluate the needs and develop the advanced sensing and imaging, robust autonomous navigation, enhanced data communication, and data management capabilities required to use sUAS in atmospheric physics. Annual integrated evaluation of the systems in coordinated field tests are being used to validate sensor performance while integrated into various sUAS platforms ...


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