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The Study And Application Of Carbon Nanotube Film Heaters For Space Applications, Christopher C. Rocker 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

The Study And Application Of Carbon Nanotube Film Heaters For Space Applications, Christopher C. Rocker

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to examine the feasibility of using Carbon Nanotube (CNT) sheets as thin film heaters for space applications. The ability to maintain the temperature of space components has a direct impact on a space vehicle's operation and longevity. Currently etched foil heaters are used to heat satellite batteries. Battery heaters are the focus of this research. However, as this study will show, they have limitations and are susceptible to failure. CNT sheets have many beneficial properties and show potential in replacing the etched foil design. In this study test specimens were created by forming ...


Space-Based Maneuver Detection And Characterization Using Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation, Justin D. Katzovitz 2018 Air Force Institute of Technology

Space-Based Maneuver Detection And Characterization Using Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation, Justin D. Katzovitz

Theses and Dissertations

An increasingly congested space environment requires real-time and dynamic space situational awareness (SSA) on both domestic and foreign space objects in Earth orbits. Current statistical orbit determination (SOD) techniques are able to estimate and track trajectories for cooperative spacecraft. However, a non-cooperative spacecraft performing unknown maneuvers at unknown times can lead to unexpected changes in the underlying dynamics of classical filtering techniques. Adaptive estimation techniques can be utilized to build a bank of recursive estimators with different hypotheses on a system's dynamics. The current study assesses the use of a multiple model adaptive estimation (MMAE) technique for detecting and ...


Revolution In Autonomous Orbital Navigation (Raon) Aas Gnc Conference 2018 Aas18081.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia, David K. Geller 2018 Utah State University

Revolution In Autonomous Orbital Navigation (Raon) Aas Gnc Conference 2018 Aas18081.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia, David K. Geller

Rachit Bhatia

The future of deep space exploration depends upon technological advancement towards
improving spacecraft’s autonomy and versatility. This study examines the feasibility of autonomous
orbit determination using accelerometer measurements. The long term objective
of this research is to ascertain specific sensor requirements to meet pre-defined mission navigation
error budgets. For this paper, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) simulation based
on a simple six degree of freedom environment model is developed. While the results are
low fidelity, they can be used as a guide for more detailed and complete analysis. Traditional
inertial navigation (dead reckoning and external aiding) is not considered ...


Revolution In Autonomous Orbital Navigation (Raon) Aas Gnc Conference 2018 Aas18081.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia 2018 Utah State University

Revolution In Autonomous Orbital Navigation (Raon) Aas Gnc Conference 2018 Aas18081.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia

Rachit Bhatia

The future of deep space exploration depends upon technological advancement towards
improving spacecraft’s autonomy and versatility. This study examines the feasibility of autonomous
orbit determination using accelerometer measurements. The long term objective
of this research is to ascertain specific sensor requirements to meet pre-defined mission navigation
error budgets. For this paper, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) simulation based
on a simple six degree of freedom environment model is developed. While the results are
low fidelity, they can be used as a guide for more detailed and complete analysis. Traditional
inertial navigation (dead reckoning and external aiding) is not considered ...


Responsible Behavior For Constellations And Clusters, Darren McKnight, Jonathan Rosenblatt, Darren Garber 2018 Integrity Applications, Inc.

Responsible Behavior For Constellations And Clusters, Darren Mcknight, Jonathan Rosenblatt, Darren Garber

Space Traffic Management Conference

Many large constellations are being considered for deployment over the next ten years into low earth orbit (LEO). This paper seeks to quantify the risks that these constellations pose to the debris environment, the risks that the debris environment poses to these constellations, and the risks that these constellations pose to themselves. The three representative constellations examined in detail in this paper are operated (or planned to be operated) by Spire Global, Iridium, and OneWeb. This paper provides a balanced risk analysis including collision risk, operational risk, and non-adherence risk. For perspective, the risk posed by these economically useful constellations ...


Space Operations In The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator And Mission Control Center: Lessons Learned With Xcor Lynx, Pedro Llanos, Christopher Nguyen, David Williams, Kim O. Chambers Ph.D., Erik Seedhouse, Robert Davidson 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Space Operations In The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator And Mission Control Center: Lessons Learned With Xcor Lynx, Pedro Llanos, Christopher Nguyen, David Williams, Kim O. Chambers Ph.D., Erik Seedhouse, Robert Davidson

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

This study was conducted to better understand the performance of the XCOR Lynx vehicle. Because the Lynx development was halted, the best knowledge of vehicle dynamics can only be found through simulator flights. X-Plane 10 was chosen for its robust applications and accurate portrayal of dynamics on a vehicle in flight. The Suborbital Space Flight Simulator (SSFS) and Mission Control Center (MCC) were brought to the Applied Aviation Sciences department in fall 2015 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach campus. This academic and research tool is a department asset capable of providing multiple fields of data about suborbital simulated flights ...


Natural And Artificial Satellite Dynamics And Evolution Around Near-Earth Asteroids With Solar Radiation Pressure, Samantha M. Rieger 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Natural And Artificial Satellite Dynamics And Evolution Around Near-Earth Asteroids With Solar Radiation Pressure, Samantha M. Rieger

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Natural and artificial satellites are subject to perturbations when orbiting near-Earth asteroids. These perturbations include non-uniform gravity from the asteroid, third-body disturbances from the Sun, and solar radiation pressure. For small natural (1 cm-15 m) and artificial satellites, solar radiation pressure is the primary perturbation that will cause their orbits to go unstable. For the asteroid Bennu, the future target of the spacecraft OSIRIS-REx, the possibility of natural satellites having stable orbits around the asteroid and characterize these stable regions is investigated. It has been found that the main orbital phenomena responsible for the stability or instability of these possible ...


On The Design Of Solar Gravity Driven Planetocentric Transfers Using Artificial Neural Networks, Stijn De Smet 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

On The Design Of Solar Gravity Driven Planetocentric Transfers Using Artificial Neural Networks, Stijn De Smet

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The sun's gravity can be used to efficiently transfer between different planetocentric orbits. Such transfers cannot be designed in a two-body dynamical system, nor do analytical methods exist to identify such transfers. This dissertation presents a method to efficiently identify transfers between a specified departure and target orbit. This method is applied to a well known problem: transfers from inclined low-earth orbits to the geostationary orbit.

Motivated by the large observed control authority of the sun for geocentric transfers, a new mission architecture is defined. This architecture allows the injection of multiple spacecraft around Mars in different target orbits ...


Dynamics Of Complex Spacecraft Subject To Forced And Environmental Charging, Joseph A. Hughes 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Dynamics Of Complex Spacecraft Subject To Forced And Environmental Charging, Joseph A. Hughes

Aerospace Engineering Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Due to the space plasma environment and the sun, spacecraft can charge to very high negative voltages. These high charge levels can cause arcing which can seriously damage spacecraft electronics and even cause mission ending damage. Spacecraft charging can also cause significant perturbations for lightweight High Area to Mass Ratio (HAMR) objects. If correctly harnessed and directed, charging can be used to exert forces and torques on large debris objects without making physical contact through the Coulomb force. This concept is called the Electrostatic Tractor (ET) and can tug debris out of Geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) in a matter of ...


Solar Eclipse Induced Atmospheric Turbulence Effects On High Altitude Balloons, Fnu Anamika, Denise Buckner, Peter Henson, Jennifer Fowler, Nanette Valentour 2017 University of North Dakota

Solar Eclipse Induced Atmospheric Turbulence Effects On High Altitude Balloons, Fnu Anamika, Denise Buckner, Peter Henson, Jennifer Fowler, Nanette Valentour

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

The North Dakota Atmospheric Education Student Initiated Research (ND-AESIR) team launched a balloon during the total solar eclipse in Rexburg, Idaho. After the umbra’s passage, the balloon experienced unexpectedly high levels of atmospheric turbulence. Video footage taken from the payload displays the conditions, and analysis of flight path data models created from the iridium GPS confirm that unusually violent turbulence occurred. These forces caused the key rings holding the bottom of the parachute to the payload train to rip open; the balloon and parachute flew away and the payloads free fell to the surface from an altitude of 68 ...


Autonomous Navigation Using Gravity Gradiometer Measurements_Iaass2017_Session 15.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia, David Geller 2017 Utah State University

Autonomous Navigation Using Gravity Gradiometer Measurements_Iaass2017_Session 15.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia, David Geller

Rachit Bhatia

The future of deep space exploration depends upon technological
advancement towards improving spacecraft’s
autonomy and versatility. This study examines the feasibility
of orbit determination using gravity gradient measurements,
and investigate its potential as a prospective
solution for futuristic autonomous orbital navigation.
The long term objective of this research is to ascertain
specific sensor requirements to meet pre-defined mission
navigation error budgets. For this paper, a Monte Carlo
simulation based on a simple three degree of freedom
environment model and an extended Kalman filter are
developed. While the results are low fidelity, they can be
used as a guide for ...


Autonomous Navigation Using Gravity Gradiometer Measurements_Iaass2017_Session 15.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia 2017 Utah State University

Autonomous Navigation Using Gravity Gradiometer Measurements_Iaass2017_Session 15.Pdf, Rachit Bhatia

Rachit Bhatia

The future of deep space exploration depends upon technological
advancement towards improving spacecraft’s
autonomy and versatility. This study examines the feasibility
of orbit determination using gravity gradient measurements,
and investigate its potential as a prospective
solution for futuristic autonomous orbital navigation.
The long term objective of this research is to ascertain
specific sensor requirements to meet pre-defined mission
navigation error budgets. For this paper, a Monte Carlo
simulation based on a simple three degree of freedom
environment model and an extended Kalman filter are
developed. While the results are low fidelity, they can be
used as a guide for ...


Integrating Spaceshiptwo Into The National Airspace System, Erik Seedhouse, Pedro Llanos 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Integrating Spaceshiptwo Into The National Airspace System, Erik Seedhouse, Pedro Llanos

Pedro J. Llanos (www.AstronauticsLlanos.com)

The increasing number of commercial suborbital space flights over the next decade may lead to the development of commercial suborbital transportation. This may lead to risks to civil aviation and the hazards that may arise from the interaction of suborbital spacecraft with controlled air space. To do this the National Airspace System will need to accommodate a growing number of suborbital spacecraft. An example of one of the suborbital vehicles being developed is Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo. This paper analyzes the performance of SpaceShipTwo using simulated nominal flight research data conducted at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Suborbital Spaceflight Simulator.


Satellite Propulsion Spectral Signature Detection And Analysis For Space Situational Awareness Using Small Telescopes, Pamela L. Wheeler 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Satellite Propulsion Spectral Signature Detection And Analysis For Space Situational Awareness Using Small Telescopes, Pamela L. Wheeler

Theses and Dissertations

Safe satellite operations are of utmost importance. Maintaining precise orbital maintenance places stringent performance requirements on current propulsion systems, which are often electric propulsion systems. Electron temperature is a commonly used diagnostic to determine the performance of a Hall thruster, and recent work has correlated near infrared (NIR) spectral measurements of ionization lines of xenon and krypton to electron temperature measurements. In the research herein, appropriate line spectra ratios are identified for each propellant type when used with remote space-to-ground observations. NIR plume emissions were used to characterize a 600 Watt Hall thruster for a variety of observation angles and ...


Analysis Of An Experimental Space Debris Removal Mission, Krista L.L. Roth 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Analysis Of An Experimental Space Debris Removal Mission, Krista L.L. Roth

Theses and Dissertations

Encountering space debris is an ever-increasing problem in space exploration and exploitation, especially in Low Earth Orbit. While many space-faring governing bodies have attempted to control the orbital lifetime post mission completion of satellites and rocker bodies, objects already in orbit pose a danger to future mission planning. Currently, governments and academic institutions are working to develop missions to remove space debris; however, the proposed missions are typically costly primary missions. This research proposes an alternative to use an upper stage rocket, to be called a chaser, already launching a primary mission near the desired debris as a host for ...


Mass Estimation Through Fusion Of Astrometric And Photometric Data Collection With Application To High Area-To-Mass Ratio Objects, Matthew Richardson 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Mass Estimation Through Fusion Of Astrometric And Photometric Data Collection With Application To High Area-To-Mass Ratio Objects, Matthew Richardson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis work presents the formulation for a tool developed in MATLAB to determine the mass of a space object from the fusion of astrometric and photometric data. The application for such a tool is to better model the mass estimation method used for high area-to-mass ratio objects found in high altitude orbit regimes. Typically, the effect of solar radiation pressure is examined with angles observations to deduce area-to-mass ratio calculations for space objects since the area-to-mass ratio can greatly affect its orbital dynamics. On the other hand, photometric data is not sensitive to mass but is a function of ...


The Effect Of Surface Materials And Morphology On Wingsuit Aerodynamics, Timothy Allen Sestak 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

The Effect Of Surface Materials And Morphology On Wingsuit Aerodynamics, Timothy Allen Sestak

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines the aerodynamic effects of the materials, textiles, and morphologies currently used in wingsuit design and construction. The experiment was a low-speed wind tunnel investigation using a rigid wing with an aspect ratio of 2, a NACA 4418 airfoil cross section and a smooth, polished painted surface as a baseline. The baseline wing was modified by covering the upper and lower surfaces with various textiles currently used in wingsuit construction. This study is the first step in continued research to design and build a wingsuit with superior glide performance compared to current designs. Surface textures and features on ...


Enceladus Sample Return Mission, Braxton Brakefield, Rekesh Ali, Andrew Bishop, Shelby Honaker, David Taylor 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Enceladus Sample Return Mission, Braxton Brakefield, Rekesh Ali, Andrew Bishop, Shelby Honaker, David Taylor

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Investigating Analytical And Numerical Methods To Predict Satellite Orbits Using Two-Line Element Sets, Adam T. Rich 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Investigating Analytical And Numerical Methods To Predict Satellite Orbits Using Two-Line Element Sets, Adam T. Rich

Theses and Dissertations

As Low Earth Orbit (LEO) contains an ever-increasing number of objects, the prediction of future object positions must be precise in order to avoid collisions. Object positions are distributed in two-line element (TLE) sets and are generated using the analytical propagator known as Simplified General Perturbations 4 (SGP4). However, a numerical integrator called Special Perturbations (SP) provides an alternative approach to TLE generation and propagation. In this thesis, TLE accuracy was determined with both models, and the length of time that a single element set can provide valid information was also established. With two-line element sets as data, comparisons were ...


Formation Flight Of Earth Satellites On Kam Torus Using Classical Orbital Elements, Marissa C. Reabe 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Formation Flight Of Earth Satellites On Kam Torus Using Classical Orbital Elements, Marissa C. Reabe

Theses and Dissertations

This research uses the KAM theory that has been refined by Wiesel to show that Earth-satellites dynamics can be represented by an integrable Hamiltonian system with a small perturbation, like Earths geopotential. The satellite will follow a torus in phase space and remain on that KAM torus for all time unless acted on by a non-conservative force. A torus frequency was calculated, in this research, using a truth model in System Tool Kit (STK) and the High Precision Orbit Propagator (HPOP) to develop an accurate ephemeris file listing the Classical Orbital Elements (COEs). The frequencies found from the truth model ...


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