Mega-Events And Tourism: The Case Of Brazil, 2017 College of the Holy Cross
Mega-Events And Tourism: The Case Of Brazil, Robert Baumann, Victor Matheson
Economics Department Working Papers
Mega-sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup are expensive affairs. Host countries often justify the spending required to stage these events by predicting that mega-events will draw large numbers of tourists. This paper analyzes monthly foreign tourist arrivals into Brazil between 2003 and 2015 and finds that the 2014 FIFA World Cup increased foreign tourism by roughly one million visitors. This number far exceeded expectations, but we show that roughly a quarter of this increase in foreign tourism was caused by the fortuitous advancement of Argentina’s national team, and potential hosts should not count on the event to ...
Beyond Moneyball: Changing Compensation In Mlb, 2017 College of the Holy Cross
Beyond Moneyball: Changing Compensation In Mlb, Joshua Congdon-Hohman, Jonathan A. Lanning
Economics Department Working Papers
This study examines the changes in player compensation in Major League Baseball during the last three decades. Specifically, we examine the extent to which recently documented changes in players’ compensation structure based on certain types of productivity fits in with the longer term trends in compensation, and identify the value of specific output activities in different time periods. We examine free agent contracts in three-year periods across three decades and find changes to which players’ performance measures are significantly rewarded in free agency. We find evidence that the compensation strategies of baseball teams increased the rewards to “power” statistics like ...
Intertemporal Elasticity Of Substitution With Leisure Margin, 2017 Old Dominion University
Intertemporal Elasticity Of Substitution With Leisure Margin, Juan Du, Takeshi Yagihashi
Economics Faculty Publications
This paper investigates whether leisure time definitions matter in the estimation of the intertemporal elasticity of substitution of consumption (IES) by using a utility specification that allows interaction between consumption and leisure time. We find that the IES estimated using a narrowly defined leisure measure that excludes quasi-leisure activities is larger than that estimated using nonmarket time. The discrepancy is largely driven by the substitution of consumption and several leisure components over the lifecycle. This finding is robust in alternative specifications and holds well for subsamples of higher socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate the inseperable nature of consumption and time ...
Behaviors, Knowledge, And Education Of Leave No Trace Principles In The Red River Gorge Rock Climbing Community, 2017 Eastern Kentucky University
Behaviors, Knowledge, And Education Of Leave No Trace Principles In The Red River Gorge Rock Climbing Community, Brian Gregory Clark
Online Theses and Dissertations
Rock climbing is becoming a very popular and mainstream outdoor activity. With the growth in rock climbing comes an increase in the number of visitors this sport attracts. The increase in visitor usage undoubtedly leads to an impact on the natural environment surrounding these rock climbing areas. Rock climbers acknowledge the impacts that are being made and are taking initiative to lessen their impact while visiting rock climbing areas such as the Red River Gorge (RRG) in rural southeast Kentucky. We know that rock climbers make a substantial economic impact while visiting and this dissertation looks at the environmental knowledge ...
Sentiment And Stock Returns: Anticipating A Major Sporting Event, 2017 U.S. Air Force Academy
Sentiment And Stock Returns: Anticipating A Major Sporting Event, Brian C. Payne, Jiri Tresl, Geoffrey C. Friesen
Finance Department Faculty Publications
This study documents the effect of the Super Bowl on the stock returns of firms that are geographically associated with the competing teams. We find significant upward return drift in the 9 trading days leading up to the Super Bowl, a pattern consistent with investors trading in anticipation of the game itself. The ‘‘anticipatory behavior’’ among investors leads to widespread pregame returns, which is not documented in prior studies. These pre-event abnormal returns are positive and statistically and economically significant for all firms, and the size of pre-event returns varies according to each team’s favored status. In addition, firms ...
Gender Pay Gap In Athletics, 2017 Nebraska College Preparatory Academy
Gender Pay Gap In Athletics, George Siliman
Nebraska College Preparatory Academy Senior Capstone Projects
The pay gap is a measure of what women are paid relative to men. It is important to to minimize the gender pay gap in athletics so it can successfully help society move in forward progression and not hinder on the past. The effects on women in professional sport setting, and the overall difference between males and females in athletics all play a significant role on the fluctuated pay gap.
Women play a prominent role in athletics but the lack of compensation devalues them as competitors and athletes. In sum, I learned about the fluctuation of the pay gap between ...
The Economic Impact Of The Marine Leisure Industry On Cork Harbour, 2017 Department of Management & Enterprise, Cork Institute of Technology, Rossa Avenue, Bishopstown, Cork City, Ireland
The Economic Impact Of The Marine Leisure Industry On Cork Harbour, Aisling Conway Lenihan, Helen Mcguirk
This report, commissioned by the Cool Route Project,presents the economic impact of the Marine Leisure Industry in Cork Harbour. The Cool Route Project, funded byInterreg VB1funding, “investigates all aspects of the practical logistics and business potential to establish a bi-directional yacht cruising route along the western offshore areas of the Northern Periphery Area, stretching from Co. Cork in the South of Ireland, to the UK (Northern Ireland and Western Scotland) and onwards to the Faroe Islands and Norway”(Cool Route 2017).Led by theCork Institute of Technology (CIT), the Project partners, also include the Royal Cork Yacht Club, Donegal ...
Let's 'Meetup' At The Theme Park, 2017 University of Central Florida
Let's 'Meetup' At The Theme Park, Edwin Torres, Marissa Orlowski
Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works
Many people enjoy theme park and other leisure experiences with their families; however, today a great number of single, geographically mobile individuals desire to partake in such experiences. ‘Meetup’ is the world’s largest social network of local groups and thus allows for both online and off-line (in person) interactions. Using an ethnographic approach, this study examines how individuals can enjoy activities centered on common activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) via immersion in a Meetup group over the course of a year. Notably, members visited with greater frequency, had less tolerance for long lines, and were more likely to attend ...
Aquatic Managers Of Northeast Iowa : A Description Of Current Practices Of Staff Training And Implementation Detailing Competencies, Frequency, And Evaluation, Tracy N. Carey
Dissertations and Theses @ UNI
The purpose of this study is to identify and describe how aquatic managers implement aquatic staff training and development. According to the American Society for Training and Development, U.S. organizations spend more than $50 billion annually on employee training. Organizations place an important emphasis on training and development for their employees. Aquatic facilities play an important role in the communities they serve. Operating an aquatic facility has become increasingly more complex in recent years due to new technology with filtration systems, differentiating certifications and facility regulations.
Therefore, aquatic managers must ensure their lifeguards are capable and competent of doing ...
The Business Of Trails, 2017 Edith Cowan University
The Business Of Trails, Kerstin Stender
Theses: Doctorates and Masters
Long distance trails have substantial infrastructure due to their length and provision of overnight shelters. Length and remoteness impact negatively on travel time for access, resulting in high maintenance costs. Additionally, as government budgets are declining globally, funding for trails can be difficult to source, leaving infrastructure to deteriorate.
This research investigated how long distance trails are managed, specifically from the perspective of a tourism product in a natural protected area. Global case studies were based on site visits and interviews with trail managers around the world, as well as a review of written documentation. Through comparative analysis the components ...
University Fundraising Through Special Events: An Application Of The Theory Of Planned Behavior, 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
University Fundraising Through Special Events: An Application Of The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Megan Elizabeth Hobbs
Master's Theses and Project Reports
The purpose of this study was to apply the Revised Theory of Planned Behavior and EVENTQUAL models to explore (1) event qualities that significantly impact guests’ satisfaction with a university event that they attend, (2) significant factors influencing university loyalty as a result of an event, and (3) willingness to make a charitable donation to a university as a result of attending an event. An online survey was sent to attendees of an annual Cal Poly auction event between 2002 and 2016 that directly benefits Cal Poly students. The data were used to test a series of hypotheses to determine ...
Extreme Sports: A Study Of Free-Solo Rock Climbers, 2016 Brigham Young University
Extreme Sports: A Study Of Free-Solo Rock Climbers, Jacob Ray Sparks
Theses and Dissertations
Extreme sport participation has traditionally been conceptualized as a psychological disorder and something to be avoided (Cashmore, 2002). Viewed in this way, these individuals are thought to be enacting an unhealthy psychology (Ogilvie, 1997; Slanger & Rudestam, 1997). Other research has described participants in extreme sports as sensation seekers under-stimulated by their normal surroundings and out of control (Zuckerman, 1979). Using Brymer's (2005) focused definition of extreme sports, "activities where a mismanaged mistake or accident would most likely result in death, as opposed to injury" (p. 5), this study utilized a phenomenological method to analyze semi-structured interviews with 16 free-solo climbers (n =16). The participants described their motivations in terms of overwhelming enjoyment, heightened focus, and personal progress. These results support more recent research describing extreme sport experiences as opportunities for positive transformation with outcomes including gains in courage, humility, eco-centrism, and emotional engagement (Brymer, 2009; Willig, 2008). These findings challenge the traditional, stereotypical notions of extreme sports participants as young and male (Wheaton & Beal, 2003), sensation-seeking (Zuckerman, 1979), and psychologically unwell (Ogilvie, 1997; Slanger & Rudestam, 1997). Answering Brymer's (2005) call to investigate all extreme sports individually, this study focused on the specific extreme sport of free-solo climbing and found the experience of the free-solo climber is a powerful undertaking enjoyed by young, old, male, and female.
Examining Intrinsic Motivation And Holistic Functioning: The Role Of Therapeutic Recreation In Residential Substance Use Treatment, Damien Christopher Cavanaugh
Theses and Dissertations
This evaluative study examined the impact of recreational therapy interventions on intrinsic motivation and holistic functioning among adults at a substance use treatment facility. West (2001) identified motivation as a key variable in treating substance use disorders, and self-determination theory, specifically intrinsic motivation, provided a useful framework for this study. Intrinsic motivation is grounded in self-determination theory and defines various motivation types and how to increase participants' engagement. Holistic functioning is another tool in assessing a participant's recovery. For this evaluation, four domains were specifically assessed: (a) physical, (b) leisure, (c) social, and (d) daily living functioning. These quality ...
Decision Making In The Backcountry While Carrying A Cellular Phone, 2016 Brigham Young University
Decision Making In The Backcountry While Carrying A Cellular Phone, Quinn S. Linford
Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this study was to gain understanding about the influence of technology, specifically cellular phones, on decision making during potentially risky situations in the backcountry. Previous research in this area is contradictory and some studies indicate technology is influencing people to take more risks while others suggest it is not. Further confounding the relationship is the fact that previous studies have found people may be taking more risk in the presence of technology were based largely on respondent perceptions, not observation data. The current study used a scenario-based decision model to examine the difference in decision making between ...
Plastic Fantastic: The Fiberglass Boatbuilding Industry In Holland, Michigan, 2016 Hope College
Plastic Fantastic: The Fiberglass Boatbuilding Industry In Holland, Michigan, Geoffrey D. Reynolds
Plastic Fantastic: The Fiberglass Boatbuilding Industry in Holland, Michigan is a chapter concerning the use of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) to build boats starting in the 1940s. In the 1950s boat builders discovered that fiberglass would allow them to design boats that would lead to new boat sales and increased profit margins for years to come. This technology steadily spread throughout American boat manufacturing plants, including Holland, Michigan, placing the town among the leaders in the industry.
Tell Me At What Time You Usually Wake Up, I’Ll Tell You What Type Of Traveler You Are: An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Destination Canada “Explorer Quotient” Segmentation Method And Chronotype, 2016 Office du tourisme de Québec
Tell Me At What Time You Usually Wake Up, I’Ll Tell You What Type Of Traveler You Are: An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Destination Canada “Explorer Quotient” Segmentation Method And Chronotype, Maryse Côté-Hamel
TTRA Canada 2016 Conference
While travelers diverge on their attitudes, beliefs, values, motivations and behaviours, they also vary in their chronotype (also called diurnal preference). The present research investigates the mediating influence of the chronotype on the relationship between Destination Canada "Explorer Quotient" and the length of planning prior to the trip.
From Woods To Water: Reviving A G-W Invader, 2016 Hope College
From Woods To Water: Reviving A G-W Invader, Geoffrey D. Reynolds
From Woods to Water: Reviving a G-W Invader is an article concerning the full restoration of a 1972 G-W Invader 10.3' Rally fiberglass boat by high school students Peter Reynolds, Gurjinder Sandhu, and instructor Geoffrey Reynolds, during May and June 2016.
Recreation At Work: More Than Fun And Games?, 2016 Brigham Young University
Recreation At Work: More Than Fun And Games?, Andrew Lacanienta
Theses and Dissertations
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Duerden, Courtright, and Widmer's (n.d.) Recreation at Work (RAW) Model and explore the relationship between RAW and employee flourishing (i.e., resilience, work engagement, organizational identification). This study explored the unique contribution from RAW and work activities in relation to employee flourishing. Structural equation modeling revealed RAW and leisure as a state of mind (LSM) perceptions (i.e., intrinsic motivation, perceived freedom, positive affect) had positive relationships with personal expressiveness (β = .704, p < .001) and organizational identification (β = .164, p = .002). Additionally, RAW had a positive relationship with resilience mediated by personal expressiveness ...
Kickact: The Implementation & Evaluation Of A Youth Empowerment & Leadership Program, 2016 SIT Graduate Institute
Kickact: The Implementation & Evaluation Of A Youth Empowerment & Leadership Program, Crystal M. Denny
KickAct is a program that combines martial arts and performing arts to empower youth and engage them in creative social change. Youth experience a lack of community engagement and partnership with the adult. Many youth face additional challenges, ranging from lack of support in school to violence at home, that can negatively impact their life. KickAct is designed to provide youth with the necessary skills and experience to thrive as active participants in their communities. Due to inconsistent attendance and participation, it was not possible to determine whether the workshop format was a successful method for youth empowerment. However, the ...
Overcoming Fraud & Dishonesty In The Hospitality Industry, 2016 Technological University Dublin
Overcoming Fraud & Dishonesty In The Hospitality Industry, James Peter Murphy
The licensed industry is an increasingly competitive market place, many bars have responded by empowering staff and undertaking structural and management reforms in recent years. Undoubtedly, these changes have significantly raised the levels of customer service and enhanced customer satisfaction. Paradoxically these changes, combined with the responsibilities allocated to bar staff and management to supervise and manage bars with autonomous control have created more fertile conditions, scope and opportunity for dishonest actions by staff members.
The way licensed premises approach the issue of staff fraud is changing in response to the increased risk. Many bars have historically been anxious to ...