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The Ethical Principle Of Vulnerability And The Case Against Human Organ Trafficking, Peter A. DePergola II 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School - Baystate; College of Our Lady of the Elms

The Ethical Principle Of Vulnerability And The Case Against Human Organ Trafficking, Peter A. Depergola Ii

Online Journal of Health Ethics

An increasingly blurred understanding of the ethical significance of global "transplant transactions" - a curious combination of altruism and commerce, consent and coercion, gifts and theft, science and sorcery, care and human sacrifice - suggest a critical need to revisit the fundamental moral normlessness of the trafficking enterprise. This essay grounds its arguments in two, straightforward premises: (i) the ethical principle of respect for human vulnerability is an indispensable measure of the licitness of most, if not all, moral actions; and (ii) human organ trafficking violates the ethical principle of respect for human vulnerability. Drawing from this syllogism, the aim and proposal ...


Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, Nicholas DiStefano 2018 Bowdoin College

Non-Naturalism And Naturalism In Mathematics, Morality, And Epistemology, Nicholas Distefano

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Policy Of Current Hospital Translation Services And Recommendations For Future Adjustments For Spanish-Speaking Patients, Isidora Rose Beach 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Policy Of Current Hospital Translation Services And Recommendations For Future Adjustments For Spanish-Speaking Patients, Isidora Rose Beach

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


A Four-Legged Megalosaurus And Swimming Brontosaurs, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

A Four-Legged Megalosaurus And Swimming Brontosaurs, Jordan C. Oldham

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions laid out the framework for his theory of how science changes. At the advent of dinosaur paleontology fossil hunters like Gideon Mantell discovered some of the first dinosaurs like Iguanodon and Megalosaurus. Through new disciples like Georges Cuvier’s comparative anatomy lead early dinosaur paleontologist to reconstruct them like giant reptiles of absurd proportions. This lead to the formation of a new paradigm that prehistoric animals like dinosaurs existed and eventually went extinct. The first reconstructions of dinosaur made them to look like giant counterparts of their modern cousins ...


Constraints And Explanation, Alexander Bolano 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Constraints And Explanation, Alexander Bolano

Theses

For the past 40 years, causal-mechanical approaches to explanation in science have been the received view. In this paper, I will argue that causal-mechanical approaches to explanation are not the whole story; there is a notable class of explanations that I call constraining explanation. Constraining explanation do not work by describing some causal structure; rather they work by highlighting mathematical constraints on what kinds of structure there can be. Constraining explanations are different that causal explanations because they give a kind of modal knowledge that causal-mechanical explanation alone cannot give.


Science, Mental Illness, And Ethics In Friedrich Dürrenmatt’S The Physicists, Niyant Vora 2018 Illinois Wesleyan University

Science, Mental Illness, And Ethics In Friedrich Dürrenmatt’S The Physicists, Niyant Vora

John Wesley Powell Student Research Conference

In 1962, as Cold War tensions approached their peak, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, a Swiss playwright, published his play The Physicists. Two of the most important topics in The Physicists are mental illness and ethical responsibility of scientists. Dürrenmatt’s three main characters: Möbius (a genius), Einstein (a Russian spy), and Newton (an American spy) are all physicists who appropriate the status of mentally ill in order to hide from society inside the Les Cerisiers Sanatorium. Their status as mentally ill acts as a cover up that reveals their different reasons for adapting that status–from Möbius attempt to escape the politics ...


Ten Years Later: A Reply To A Reply From David Haugen And Bryant Keeling; Concerning Charles Hartshorne's Neoclassical Theology And Big Bang Cosmology, Theodore Walker 2018 Southern Methodist University

Ten Years Later: A Reply To A Reply From David Haugen And Bryant Keeling; Concerning Charles Hartshorne's Neoclassical Theology And Big Bang Cosmology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

In the Fall 1993 issue of the journal Process Studies, David Haugen and L. Bryant Keeling offered a criticism of Charles Hartshorne’s neoclassical theology. In the same issue, this criticism was followed by Hartshorne’s less than one-page response, a response Theodore Walker judged to be seriously inadequate. In the Fall-Winter 2006 issue of Process Studies, Walker offered a neoclassical response to the Haugen-Keeling-Hartshorne discussion. In the Spring-Summer 2008 issue of Process Studies, Haugen and Keeling offered a reply to Walker. Ten years later, in April 2018, Walker offers this reply to the Haugen-Keeling reply.

At issue is whether ...


Social Media: On Tech-Caves, Virtual Panopticism, And The Science Fiction-Like State In Which We Unwittingly Find Ourselves, Michael Major 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Social Media: On Tech-Caves, Virtual Panopticism, And The Science Fiction-Like State In Which We Unwittingly Find Ourselves, Michael Major

Theses

Making use of three historic philosophical thought experiments, this paper blends psychological perspectives with philosophical reasoning to show how social media is corrupting our perception of reality, the result of which is ultimately detrimental to society as a whole. This is accomplished by first using Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” to analyze and discuss the ways in which social media is limiting humanity’s access to real knowledge. Next, Michel Foucault’s analysis of punishment in its social context, Discipline and Punish, is used to discuss the ways in which social media is adversely affecting our behavior. Finally, Robert ...


Epiparasitism And Mycoheterotrophy, James J. McAuliffe 2018 Lake Forest College

Epiparasitism And Mycoheterotrophy, James J. Mcauliffe

Senior Theses

The classification of mycoheterotrophs in the Monotropoideae sub-family as epiparasites is misdirectional and problematic. A net cost has not been proven to occur with the associates of mycoheterotrophs in the Monotropoideae, therefore epiparasitism is not concretely proven. However, because of evidence that there is a linear transfer of photosynthate to the mycoheterotroph with no known reciprocation it is predicted that they are parasitic on their associate fungus and tree. Preemptively mycoheterotrophs are considered epiparasites, and this assumption has become the predominant perspective through which mycoheterotrophs are studied. The overuse of epiparasitism as a theoretical model limits the study of other ...


Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions put forth his idea about how science changes. Kuhn thought that science changed by scientific revolutions brought on by an anomaly. After the anomaly, a crisis point would ensue as more scientists would research the anomaly. While in the process of research they would abandon the old paradigm in favor of one that would explain the anomaly. Not all anomalies create a crisis, but can rather result in a paradigm shift. These shifts occur within the old paradigm, and do not led to the formation of a new paradigm ...


Another Scientific Revolution: Now Yielding A 'Cosmic Biology' Consistent With Natural Theology, Theodore Walker 2018 Southern Methodist University

Another Scientific Revolution: Now Yielding A 'Cosmic Biology' Consistent With Natural Theology, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Beyond the Copernican revolution, another scientific revolution is now in process. Inspired by Sir Fred Hoyle and others, this contemporary extension of the Copernican revolution is replacing biology conceived as exclusively Earth science with biology conceived as including study of stellar evolution and cosmic evolution. Furthermore, astrobiology, panspermia, and cosmic biology (Hoyle and Wickramasinghe) are advancing in ways consistent with natural theology, especially with panentheism. Some of this was anticipated and advocated by Alfred North Whitehead, Charles Hartshorne, and other philosophers of nature.


Evolution, Naturalism, And Theism: An Inconsistent Triad?, David H. Gordon 2018 Marquette University

Evolution, Naturalism, And Theism: An Inconsistent Triad?, David H. Gordon

Dissertations (2009 -)

Philosophy in the 19th century experienced a ‘turn from idealism,’ when idealist philosophies were largely abandoned for materialist ones. Scientific naturalism is now considered by many analytic philosophers to be the new orthodoxy, largely in part due to the success of the scientific method. The New Atheists, such as Daniel Dennett and Richard Dawkins, claim it is Darwin in particular who deserves much of the credit for repudiating the traditional Mind-first world view. Some, like Alvin Plantinga and Michael Behe, maintain the opposite, that evolution casts doubt on naturalism and supports theism. This dissertation seeks to determine just what exactly ...


The Strategic Naturalism Of Sandra Harding's Feminist Standpoint Epistemology: A Path Toward Epistemic Progress, Dahlia Guzman 2018 University of South Florida

The Strategic Naturalism Of Sandra Harding's Feminist Standpoint Epistemology: A Path Toward Epistemic Progress, Dahlia Guzman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation considers the “strategic naturalism” of Sandra Harding’s standpoint theory in the philosophy of science, and it should be applied to epistemology. Strategic naturalism stipulates that all elements of inquiry are historically and culturally situated, and thereby subject to critical reflection, analysis, and revision. Allegiance to naturalism is de rigueur, yet there is no clear agreement on the term’s meaning. Harding’s standpoint theory reads the lack of definition as indicative of its generative possibilities for epistemic progress. The driving question is why Harding’s approach has not been considered a viable candidate for determining progress in ...


Panel Ii. Epistemic Privilege, Standpoint Epistemology, And The Human Sciences, Kai Peattie 2018 University of Redlands

Panel Ii. Epistemic Privilege, Standpoint Epistemology, And The Human Sciences, Kai Peattie

the Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Student Conference

No abstract provided.


Footnotes To Footnotes: Whitehead's Plato, Nathan Oglesby 2018 The Graduate Center, CUNY

Footnotes To Footnotes: Whitehead's Plato, Nathan Oglesby

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the presence of Plato in the philosophical expressions of Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947). It was Whitehead who issued the well-known remark that “the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists in a series of footnotes to Plato" -- the purpose of this project is to examine the manner in which Whitehead positioned himself as one such footnote, with respect to his thought itself, and its origins, presentation and reception.

This examination involves: first, an explication of Whitehead’s cosmology and metaphysics and their ostensibly Platonic elements (consisting chiefly in the Timaeus); second, investigation ...


Mathematicians Versus Philosophers In Recent Work On Mathematical Beauty, Viktor Blåsjö 2018 Utrecht University

Mathematicians Versus Philosophers In Recent Work On Mathematical Beauty, Viktor Blåsjö

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Recent attempts at defining mathematical beauty fall roughly into two schools of thought. One takes its starting point in the subjective experience of the mathematician and characterises mathematical beauty in cognitive terms. The other seeks to reduce beauty to objective notions such as truth, symmetry, or simplicity. This second approach is popular among analytic philosophers, who are committed to seeing mathematics and science as prototypically rational enterprises. I criticise this stance on the grounds that this commitment makes its supporters approach beauty in mathematics not with a genuine desire to sympathetically understand it, but with the preconceived goal of explaining ...


Ideology In Physics: Ontological Naturalism And Theism Confront Big Bang, Cosmic Fine Tuning, And The Multiverse Of M-Theory, Anthony Walsh, Marc Ruffinengo 2018 Boise State University

Ideology In Physics: Ontological Naturalism And Theism Confront Big Bang, Cosmic Fine Tuning, And The Multiverse Of M-Theory, Anthony Walsh, Marc Ruffinengo

Journal of Ideology

The most profound questions that philosophers and scientists have asked across the centuries have been metaphysical and existential, such as “What is the meaning and purpose of life, why are we here, and why is there something rather than nothing?” There can be no definitive answers to these questions, so those who pose and propose answers to them necessarily engage ideology. Some physicists have become philosophers in that they are attempting to answer these profound questions with highly speculative theories as, for instance, Hawking and Mlodonow’s book The Grand Design (2010) which they tout as providing new answers to ...


Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers 2018 Carroll College, Helena, MT

Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

This paper addresses the issue of applying moral limitations to modern scientific research and who or what has the authority to do so. It examines two opposing positions on the issue: (1) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by society and (2) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by the scientific community. This argument centers around the nature of societal and scientific morality, and how allowing either to hold authority would affect the progression of research. Overall, it concludes that moral authority over scientific research must come from within the scientific community.


Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis 2018 Morehouse College

Animals & Ethics 101: Thinking Critically About Animal Rights, Nathan Nobis

Morehouse Faculty Publications

This book provides an overview of the current debates about the nature and extent of our moral obligations to animals. Which, if any, uses of animals are morally wrong, which are morally permissible (i.e., not wrong) and why? What, if any, moral obligations do we, individually and as a society (and a global community), have towards animals and why? How should animals be treated? Why?

We will explore the most influential and most developed answers to these questions – given by philosophers, scientists, and animal advocates and their critics – to try to determine which positions are supported by the best ...


The Similarity Of Division, Gedalia Zemel 2018 Bard College

The Similarity Of Division, Gedalia Zemel

Senior Projects Fall 2018

We propose an empiricist criterion for dividing claims into two disjoint sets. We contest the argument that our criterion presumes the existence of a mind-independent external world. Finally, we compare and contrast our criterion with similar empiricist criterions.


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