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Violence Against Architecture: The Lost Cultural Heritage Of Syria And Iraq, Heidi James Fisher 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Violence Against Architecture: The Lost Cultural Heritage Of Syria And Iraq, Heidi James Fisher

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis examines ancient architecture within Syria and Iraq that has been deliberately destroyed by violence. The act of destroying architecture and monuments in both Syria and Iraq, which is often-historical UNESCO protected, will invariably violate various laws, such as the 1954 Hague Convention or the Rome Statute. Since post-2011 Syria, all of humanity has been shocked by continuous warfare that, in addition to causing untold loss of human life and suffering, has included a series of episodes of violence against architecture, all of which is so egregious that foreign governments and non government organizations are constantly engaged in efforts ...


Owing And Owning: Zubayr Pasha, Slavery, And Empire In Nineteenth-Century Sudan, Zachary S. Berman 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Owing And Owning: Zubayr Pasha, Slavery, And Empire In Nineteenth-Century Sudan, Zachary S. Berman

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Mahdist revolt provides a quandary: why did Africans revolt against imperialism in defense of slavery? This study approaches the issue by analyzing the life of Zubayr Pasha, most well-known of Sudanese slave-traders in the decades leading to the Mahdist Revolt. What I found in interviews with him, parliamentary debates over him, articles about him, and proclamations concerning him, was that the emotional responses to his story show different perspectives on the processes of overlapping imperialisms, voluntary slavery, and a host of integrated issues. To himself he was a trader, a businessman working within the letter of the law; to ...


The Committee Of Union And Progress And World War I, Ella Shipp 2017 Western Kentucky University

The Committee Of Union And Progress And World War I, Ella Shipp

The Student Researcher: A Phi Alpha Theta Publication

The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which was born out of the Young Turks (founded in 1889), had the stated goal of restoring the 1876 Constitution and Parliament, and was inspired by Young Ottomans such as Namik Kemal.1 However, the group also had a strong streak of nationalism and Social Darwinism influenced by strands of European thought. It became increasingly dominated by rigid thinking and unexperienced young officers who ultimately formed a triumvirate and brought the Ottoman Empire into WWI on the side of the Germans. (first paragraph)


Salafism, Wahhabism, And The Definition Of Sunni Islam, Rob J. Williams 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Salafism, Wahhabism, And The Definition Of Sunni Islam, Rob J. Williams

Honors Program: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

My capstone deals with the historical definition of Sunni Islam, and how it has changed in approximately the past 200 years. Around 1800, Sunni Islam was pretty clearly defined by an adherence to one of four maddhabs, or schools of law: the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools and are all based in nearly a millennium of legal scholarship. Since 1800, however, numerous reform movements have sprung up which disavow previous scholarship and interpret Islamic law their own way. However, certain reformist groups, such as Traditionalist Salafis and Wahhabis, claim that their version of Islam is the only “pure ...


Womb Heat Versus Sperm Heat: Hippocrates Against Galen And Ibn Sīnā In Ibn Al- Nafīs’S Commentaries, Nahyan Fancy 2017 DePauw University

Womb Heat Versus Sperm Heat: Hippocrates Against Galen And Ibn Sīnā In Ibn Al- Nafīs’S Commentaries, Nahyan Fancy

History Faculty publications

Ibn al-Nafīs wrote lemmatic commentaries on Hippocrates’ Aphorisms and Ibn Sīnā’s entire Canon of Medicine. While he regularly challenges, critiques and refutes Ibn Sīnā’s positions in his Commentary on the Canon, Ibn al-Nafīs generally upholds the validity of each aphorism. This already suggests that he considered Hippocrates the supreme authority in medicine over Ibn Sīnā (and even Galen). Through an analysis of his commentary on Aphorisms V.42 and V.48 (on the causes and consequences of bearing male children), and how he deploys them in his commentary on the analogous chapters from the Canon, we shall see ...


Shipped But Not Sold: Material Culture And The Social Protocols Of Trade During Yemen’S Age Of Coffee, Perspectives On The Global Past Series. Honolulu: University Of Hawai’I Press, 2017., Nancy Um 2017 Binghamton University--SUNY

Shipped But Not Sold: Material Culture And The Social Protocols Of Trade During Yemen’S Age Of Coffee, Perspectives On The Global Past Series. Honolulu: University Of Hawai’I Press, 2017., Nancy Um

Art History Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Rainbow Of Iranian Masculinities: Raqqas, A Type Of Iranian Male Image, Anthony Shay 2017 Pomona College

A Rainbow Of Iranian Masculinities: Raqqas, A Type Of Iranian Male Image, Anthony Shay

Pomona Faculty Publications and Research

In this essay, I will explore the male dancer in the Iranian world, and how he came to occupy this abject position (dance, according to Zainab Stellar, being regarded by many conservative elements in Iranian society today as "the worst possible behavior of an undisciplined body in public, and symbol of all vice" (2011, 235)). Lotfollah “Lotfi” Mansouri, the renowned opera director and producer, recounted at a dinner that I attended (January 27, 2002 Peyvand Organization, San Jose), how one day as a student at UCLA, he entered Schonberg Music Hall and heard opera for the first time. He was ...


The Challenge Of Being In The Minority: Palestinian Christian Theology In Light Of Christian Zionism Post-1948, Medhat S. Yoakiem 2017 Luther Seminary

The Challenge Of Being In The Minority: Palestinian Christian Theology In Light Of Christian Zionism Post-1948, Medhat S. Yoakiem

Master of Theology Theses

No abstract provided.


Qānūn Al-Riyy: The Water Law Of Egypt, Stuart Borsch, Tarek Sabraa 2017 Assumption College

Qānūn Al-Riyy: The Water Law Of Egypt, Stuart Borsch, Tarek Sabraa

History Department Faculty Works

In this paper I will discuss the fact that there was indeed a rulebook in the Islamic era, a written water law (the Qānūn al-Riyy). It functioned and was enforced in the north-west Nile Delta province of Buḥayra/Ḥawf Ramsīs. This rulebook was aimed at something fairly sophisticated in quantitative terms: it imposed a system of rotating water usage via the controlled opening and closing of village dams. The purpose of this system of rotation was to regulate and maintain the velocity of water in village feeder canals. I'm going to talk about this rulebook, how it worked, how ...


Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber, Kelly Murdoch-Kitt 2017 Rochester Institute of Technology

Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber, Kelly Murdoch-Kitt

Presentations and other scholarship

Lost & Found is a strategy card-to-mobile game series that teaches medieval religious legal systems with attention to period accuracy and cultural and historical context.

The Lost & Found games project seeks to expand the discourse around religious legal systems, to enrich public conversations in a variety of communities, and to promote greater understanding of the religious traditions that build the fabric of the United States. Comparative religious literacy can build bridges between and within communities and prepare learners to be responsible citizens in our pluralist democracy.

The first game in the series is a strategy game called Lost & Found (high-school and up). In Lost & Found, players take on the role of villagers who must balance family needs with communal needs. They must balance cooperative actions even while addressing individual needs. The game emphasizes the pro-social aspects of religious legal systems including collaboration and cooperation.

Both this game and the second game in the series (Order in the Court) are set in Fustat (Old Cairo) in the 12th Century, a crossroads of religions. Lost & Found and Order in the Court both teach elements of the Mishneh Torah, the Jewish legal code written by Moses Maimonides. Maimonides was influenced by the works of Islamic legal scholars and philosophers such as Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Al Ghazahli; he also influenced Islamic scholars.


The Fourth Wave Of Democratization: A Comparative Analysis Of Tunisia And Egypt, Ariel M. Dunay 2017 James Madison University

The Fourth Wave Of Democratization: A Comparative Analysis Of Tunisia And Egypt, Ariel M. Dunay

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

In the years following the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings, Tunisia and Egypt began the process of creating a new government and constitution made by the people and for the people. However, their differing democratic outcomes begs the question of what factors led Tunisia to become a democracy and Egypt to remain stagnant. This thesis analyzes the democratic transition process through a side-by-side comparison of Tunisia and Egypt in the years since the Arab Spring. It will explore the thin lines between the military, economy, and social movements that all affect the state-building process. It will argue that Tunisia has achieved ...


Kissinger’S Strategy In The Iraqi Kurdish Rebellion Of 1972-75: False Start Or Foundation Of American-Kurdish Partnership?, Jonathan C. Esty 2017 Yale University

Kissinger’S Strategy In The Iraqi Kurdish Rebellion Of 1972-75: False Start Or Foundation Of American-Kurdish Partnership?, Jonathan C. Esty

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

No abstract provided.


The Crusades And The Crusaders (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries 2017 College of the Holy Cross

The Crusades And The Crusaders (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to “Crusades and Crusaders,” a lecture by Kevin Madigan '82, held at the College of the Holy Cross on March 23, 2017.

Professor Madigan explains what the Crusades were and explores how Crusaders viewed themselves as pilgrims on an armed expedition undertaken for Christ, authorized by the Pope, who were given full remission of their sins. He also traces the historiography of the Crusades in the 19th and 20th centuries to lay context for decision of the Holy Cross student body in 1925 to adopt ...


Globalization Of Science In The Middle East And North Africa,18th-20th Centuries (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries 2017 College of the Holy Cross

Globalization Of Science In The Middle East And North Africa,18th-20th Centuries (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to “Globalization of Science in the Middle East and North Africa,18th-20th Centuries" a conference held at the College of the Holy Cross March 24-24, 2017.

This conference brought together scholars to explore important issues related to the history of science in the Middle East and North Africa region during the 18th-20th centuries — a critical period of change and modernization when Middle Easterners were concerned about rising power of European states and societies and the relative weakness of Islamic ones. Keynote speaker Carla Nappi, Canada ...


Inventing Saladin: The Role Of The Saladin Legend In European Culture And Identity, Brian C. David 2017 James Madison University

Inventing Saladin: The Role Of The Saladin Legend In European Culture And Identity, Brian C. David

Masters Theses

This thesis seeks to uncover and understand the strange historical journey of the Muslim Sultan Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known to the West as Saladin. The historic Saladin was a ruler famous for his successful campaigns against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, his victory at the Battle of Hattin, and his holding action against the Third Crusade. Upon Saladin’s death in 1193, he became the subject of numerous legends, most of which describe him as a merciful, chivalric, and ideal leader of men. The epitome of what a thirteenth century European noble was supposed to be. This thesis seek to ...


The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park 2017 Pepperdine University

The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park

Global Tides

This paper analyzes three conflicting agreements made by the Allied powers between 1915 and 1917: the Husayn-McMahon correspondence, the Sykes-Picot arrangements, and the Balfour Declaration. It reveals the agreements as demonstrative of deeper patterns of political power and strategy in the Middle East that persist today. This paper moreover compares the Middle East with the European colonization of Rwanda in the 1880s, and how the nation's internal division was caused by external global powers seeking political and economic gain. This analysis seeks to connect global events as part of a wider political agenda propagated by Western powers.


Writing Regionalism Into The History Of Modernization: A Review Of Nathan Citino’S Envisioning The Arab Future (Book Review), Nicole Sackley 2017 University of Richmond

Writing Regionalism Into The History Of Modernization: A Review Of Nathan Citino’S Envisioning The Arab Future (Book Review), Nicole Sackley

History Faculty Publications

In 1900, Methodist minister and Chautauqua movement leader Jess Lyman Hurlbut published a guide to the Holy Land featuring “one hundred stereographed places in Palestine.” A proselytizer for ‘Biblical history,’ Hurlbut imagined the popular nineteenth-century technology of the handheld stereoscope to possess “magical…power to give us a vivid realization of the actuality of the Biblical narrative.” Its illusion of three-dimensional depth through two juxtaposed photographs would enable Americans at home to “stand…in the very presence of Palestine” and “think [themselves] into those far-away lands.” Through stereoscopes and accompanying guides, Hulbert and other turn-of-the-twentieth-century Western travelers attempted to construct ...


Sheikh Abdullah Quilliam’S International Influence: America, West Africa, And Beyond, Brent D. Singleton 2017 California State University, San Bernardino

Sheikh Abdullah Quilliam’S International Influence: America, West Africa, And Beyond, Brent D. Singleton

Library Faculty Publications

In the late 19th century, news concerning Abdullah Quilliam and the establishment of a community of British Muslim converts in Liverpool spread across the world, particularly among Muslims. As a well-placed Victorian convert to Islam in the heart of British Empire, Quilliam symbolized many things to Muslim communities worldwide, each group perceiving him in whatever light they needed to see him. For some Muslim converts in America he was a model, a mentor, and a mediator. For many Muslims in the British Empire, particularly West Africa, Quilliam provided a morale boost, a legitimatization for holding on to their religion ...


The Making Of Astate In Waiting: The Lives Of Fatah Political Prisoners, 1967 To 1985, Rebecca Granato 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Making Of Astate In Waiting: The Lives Of Fatah Political Prisoners, 1967 To 1985, Rebecca Granato

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

A State in Waiting? The Lives of Fatah Political Prisoners, 1967-1985 looks at the evolution of a Fatah prisoner movement inside Israeli prisons intended for Palestinian political prisoners. An under-researched area in Palestinian studies, this project relies on a combination of oral sources and anonymous documents drafted by prisoners during their internment housed at the Abu Jihad Museum in Abu Dis, Palestine. The dissertation argues that beginning in the 1970s and lasting into the 1980s a kind of collectivity emerged and came to define prisoner interactions and their day-to-day activities. Prison, and later system-wide hunger strikes are addressed in an ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler 2016 Lake Forest College

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


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