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The Strides Of The Saudi Female Workforce: Overcoming Constraints And Contradictions In Transition, Deepanjana Varshney 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Strides Of The Saudi Female Workforce: Overcoming Constraints And Contradictions In Transition, Deepanjana Varshney

Journal of International Women's Studies

For years Saudi Arabia has been engulfed by a widespread gender gap, discrimination and inequality; however, the new era has ushered a paradigm shift that has beckoned a rising women’s empowerment process. Today, Saudi women are better educated, more well-informed, and more financially independent as a result of a plethora of changes. Furthermore, their presence in various public spheres and social media is highly visible today. The government’s recent reforms have undisputedly catalyzed their foray into the workforce; however, effective integration is still a significant challenge. Nevertheless, Saudi women have consistently shown grit toward their employment and career ...


Sustainable Women’S Entrepreneurship: A View From Two Brics Nations, Obianuju (Uju) E. Okeke-Uzodike 2019 Bridgewater State University

Sustainable Women’S Entrepreneurship: A View From Two Brics Nations, Obianuju (Uju) E. Okeke-Uzodike

Journal of International Women's Studies

Women in Africa are poorer, less educated, and enjoy less access to jobs and opportunities than men. While that is true for women around the world, the situation in contemporary Africa appears deeper. Earlier neo-classical economists viewed women as irrational economic agents, but boosted by the intellectual activities of feminist economists that highlighted the gender bias of mainstream economics. The aid and development agencies such as the World Bank and UNDP have committed to poverty reduction by embracing and strengthening the idea of holistic human development to eliminate gender-related inequality. The concept is well spelt out in the national/regional ...


Women, Metaphors And The Legitimisation Of Gender Bias In Spanish Proverbs, Benedicta Adokarley Lomotey 2019 Bridgewater State University

Women, Metaphors And The Legitimisation Of Gender Bias In Spanish Proverbs, Benedicta Adokarley Lomotey

Journal of International Women's Studies

This paper aims at analysing the role of proverbs in the sustenance of gender violence within the Spanish context. As demonstrated by feminist linguistic activities, one of the avenues through which the status quo of both men and women are enacted and sustained is through language. However, given the complex nature of the relationship between gender and language, speakers often overlook the role of discourse on gender relations. The author investigates this inter-connection using a multidimensional approach which includes insights from Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) theory of metaphor and Austin’s (1965) Speech Act theory. This study confirms that ...


Beauty Or The Beast? University Academics’ Perceptions Of Women’S Physical Appearance And Academic Achievements, Ladan Rahbari 2019 Bridgewater State University

Beauty Or The Beast? University Academics’ Perceptions Of Women’S Physical Appearance And Academic Achievements, Ladan Rahbari

Journal of International Women's Studies

This article explores perceptions of Iranian academics of the relationship between women’s physical appearance and academic achievements. The research is conducted using interviews with academics working in different universities in the field of social sciences. Results included individual and structural explanations of the relationship between women’s physical appearance and academic achievements. Data showed a significant emphasis by the participants on the importance of beauty for women. Gender differences were observed in participants’ responses as well as in emotional reactions to the interview questions. Most male participants viewed beauty as the primary resource and an asset for marriage marketing ...


Performance Of Controlling Rape In India: Efficiency Estimate Across States, Shrabanti Maity 2019 Bridgewater State University

Performance Of Controlling Rape In India: Efficiency Estimate Across States, Shrabanti Maity

Journal of International Women's Studies

This paper addresses the performance of Indian states in controlling sexual assault or rape, on the basis of the data published by National Crime Record Bureau in India, the rape or sexual assault control performances of 28 major Indian states. The relative efficiencies of the states are evaluated by applying stochastic frontier analysis on a two decadal time period, namely, 2001 and 2011. Among the Indian states, although Kerala is recognised as the region where women are very progressive; unfortunately, our findings suggest that the performance of the state in controlling sexual assault is not impressive. On the contrary, Gujarat ...


Towards A Politics Of Pain: Building Solidarities, Breaking Silences In Contemporary Chhattisgarh, India, Panchali Ray 2019 Bridgewater State University

Towards A Politics Of Pain: Building Solidarities, Breaking Silences In Contemporary Chhattisgarh, India, Panchali Ray

Journal of International Women's Studies

This essay is based on a series of interviews with Soni Sori, an activist, educationist, and a political figure, who has become the face of adivasi (tribal) resistance to state-corporate acquisition of community land for industry, in Chhattisgarh, India. Soni Sori, who is a prominent figure in the resistance movement against State atrocities on poor adivasi farmers, was accused of Left extremism, and subsequently arrested and sexually tortured in police custody. In her own words, this was to shame her into silence and prevent her from participating in public life, again. In this essay, I ask how does pain enter ...


Are “Blessers” A Refuge For Refugee Girls In Tshwane, The Capital City Of South Africa? A Phenomenographic Study, Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi 2019 Bridgewater State University

Are “Blessers” A Refuge For Refugee Girls In Tshwane, The Capital City Of South Africa? A Phenomenographic Study, Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi

Journal of International Women's Studies

This phenomenographic study reports on the engagement of refugee girls in sexual relationships with blessers in Tshwane, the capital city of South Africa. Data were collected from 20 refugee girls through open and intense individual interviews guided by a semi-structured interview schedule. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically using Sjöström and Dahlgren’s approach to data analysis. Results indicate that girls engage in the “blesser blessee” relationship in order to escape from poverty, sex work and poor living conditions.

Blessers provide refuge for refugee girls through meeting their basic needs such as food, shelter, clothes and means of ...


Contemporary Temporary Marriage: A Blog-Analysis Of First-Hand Experiences, Sammy Z. Badran, Brian Turnbull 2019 Bridgewater State University

Contemporary Temporary Marriage: A Blog-Analysis Of First-Hand Experiences, Sammy Z. Badran, Brian Turnbull

Journal of International Women's Studies

Within Islam, a temporary marriage generally implies a short-term marriage between a man and a woman that does not come with a long-term commitment and may or may not have an explicit, pre-established timeline or endpoint. The partial religious legitimation of temporary marriage via Islamic fatwas has recently revived the institution. Some suggest that the rising popularity is an attempt by individuals to fulfill sexual desires within the confines of a religiously-legitimized institution; while others argue that it can lead to exploitation and perhaps slavery of women and girls. Conclusions supporting both the positive and negative aspects of temporary marriage ...


The Priming Of Arab-Israeli Stereotypes: How News Stories May Enhance Or Inhibit Audience Stereotypes, Erika Katherine Johnson 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Priming Of Arab-Israeli Stereotypes: How News Stories May Enhance Or Inhibit Audience Stereotypes, Erika Katherine Johnson

Journal of International Women's Studies

The goal of this study was to understand how news stories about Arab and Israeli women prime stereotypes in Americans, extending research on priming and ethnic media representation. A 2 (female target ethnicity: Arab and Israeli) x 3 (depiction type: prototypical, non-prototypical, and control) x 3 (multiple messages) mixed factorial design was conducted to examine how depiction and ethnicity in news story stimuli would interact with stereotype activation and accuracy (N = 107). Results showed that participants exhibited higher stereotyping after reading prototypical stories about Arab women and after they were not primed by stories. Also, participants who read non-prototypical news ...


Attitudes Toward Women In Palestine: A Quantitative Survey, Erni Gustafsson, Nabil Alawi, Per Normann Andersen 2019 Bridgewater State University

Attitudes Toward Women In Palestine: A Quantitative Survey, Erni Gustafsson, Nabil Alawi, Per Normann Andersen

Journal of International Women's Studies

The survey’s aim is to address whether or not the practice placement of Norwegian social work students over six consecutive years in the Balata Refugee Camp in Nablus, Palestine, has had any impact on the attitudes toward women among the population in the Camp. To achieve this, two groups, one experimental and one control, of a total 261 respondents, have been exposed to the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) that is translated from English to Arabic for this purpose. Another research was to see if there are statistical differences between male and female respondents, and if there is an ...


A Contemporary Palestinian Reading Of Gender Politics In Margaret Cavendish’S The Unnatural Tragedy, Bilal Tawfiq Hamamra 2019 Bridgewater State University

A Contemporary Palestinian Reading Of Gender Politics In Margaret Cavendish’S The Unnatural Tragedy, Bilal Tawfiq Hamamra

Journal of International Women's Studies

Margaret Cavendish’s The Unnatural Tragedy (1650) is both tribute to and critique of Ford’s ’Tis Pity She’s a Whore (1633). I argue that The Unnatural Tragedy undermines the masculine ideology on female speech and silence, linking male figures’ voices with treachery and incest and female voice, conventionally sexualized, with truth and honesty. The main thrust of The Unnatural Tragedy is against the passive feminine virtues embodied by Madame Bonit and Soeur whose adherence to the feminine virtues of silence and obedience and the masculine ideology of honour lead to their loss of control over their lives. In ...


“Grey Chicken”: Female Students As Exploitation Victims In The Commercial Sex Industry, Bagong Suyanto 2019 Bridgewater State University

“Grey Chicken”: Female Students As Exploitation Victims In The Commercial Sex Industry, Bagong Suyanto

Journal of International Women's Studies

“Grey chicken” is a term used to describe female students involved in prostitution practices. The number and distribution of students who double as prostitutes are increasing in urban areas, thus requiring immediate attention. This study found a number of reasons why female students fall into prostitution. In addition to the pressures of poverty and dysfunctional families, other factors that encourage prostitution include the influence of destructive peer-groups and being date-rape victims by their romantic partners. Female student prostitutes are not only victims of economic exploitation, but also psychological exploitation in forms of inhumane treatment from their customers, as well as ...


Gcc Labor Market, Education And Generation Y Females: A Match Or Mismatch?, Cameron Mirza, Magdalena Karolak 2019 Bridgewater State University

Gcc Labor Market, Education And Generation Y Females: A Match Or Mismatch?, Cameron Mirza, Magdalena Karolak

Journal of International Women's Studies

The aim of this paper is to analyze the convergence between the current state of education, labor markets’’ preparedness, and expectations of Generation Y females taking Bahrain as a case study. Generation Y is defined as the group of people aged 30 years and under. Although Generation Y is a worldwide phenomenon and members of this generational group share certain characteristics globally, in Gulf Cooperation Council countries [GCC] they display strong pressure to succeed, a need of gaining a high salary but also to acquire knowledge and expertise; and a preference for a strong work-life balance. In addition, in the ...


Estranged Labour On The Global Assembly Line? ‘Sewing Girls’ Of Post-Colonial Garment Factories In Sri Lanka, Prajna Seneviratne 2019 Bridgewater State University

Estranged Labour On The Global Assembly Line? ‘Sewing Girls’ Of Post-Colonial Garment Factories In Sri Lanka, Prajna Seneviratne

Journal of International Women's Studies

Inspired by the Marxian conceptualization of ‘estranged labour’, this paper seeks to explore the phenomenon of ‘sewing girls’ of global garment factories in Sri Lanka leaving waged work after a relatively short span of time, drawing on this trend of thought. Even though issues surrounding female labour in the global garment industry are widely researched, there is little or no evidence of existing literature attempting to place the empirical issues within a Marxist conceptual framework. It is in this context that this paper, which takes on a methodological approach of ethnography from a feminist perspective attempts to narrate the ‘stories ...


The Trade And Gender Nexus In Pakistan, Maryam Tanwir, Richard Sidebottom 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Trade And Gender Nexus In Pakistan, Maryam Tanwir, Richard Sidebottom

Journal of International Women's Studies

Contemporary trade policy has been driven by an apparent consensus regarding the employment-related benefits of economic openness and export-led growth that often ignores their dispersion by sector and gender. Whilst trade may be an enabling mechanism for the most capable workers in formal sectors, it may also exclude or relegate others to less visible informal workplaces.

To appreciate the processes and perceptions underlying these differential outcomes, this research paper investigates the stories of Pakistani women as workers, farmers and entrepreneurs across a range of economic sectors. Through this lens we supplement the literature that focuses on the structure of trade ...


Test Of A South Asian Model Of Childhood Experiences, Gender Role Attitudes, And Behaviors, Faiz M. M. T. Marikar 2019 Bridgewater State University

Test Of A South Asian Model Of Childhood Experiences, Gender Role Attitudes, And Behaviors, Faiz M. M. T. Marikar

Journal of International Women's Studies

The social status of males and females is an important concept for cross-cultural research. In addressing this issue, a cultural insider can be recognized as a strength that allows the researcher to take part in the everyday lives of local people. In addressing the achievements of the Sri Lankan State’s administrative sector, researchers have paid minimal attention to both gender equity and the influence of equality on hiring rates. This study mainly focuses on the impact of gender in personal development, which may be influenced by research participants decision-making processes. Data were collected from newly-recruited Sri Lankan administrative sector ...


The Impact Of State Religious Policies On Christian Women’S Leadership Status In Vietnam: The Case Of The Evangelical Church Of Vietnam Since 1975, Le Ngoc Bich Ly 2019 Bridgewater State University

The Impact Of State Religious Policies On Christian Women’S Leadership Status In Vietnam: The Case Of The Evangelical Church Of Vietnam Since 1975, Le Ngoc Bich Ly

Journal of International Women's Studies

This paper contributes to a feminist critique of multiculturalism by presenting the complexity of the relationship among the state, religion and women in the context of Vietnam. By taking the Evangelical Church of Vietnam—South as a case study, and based on both primary and secondary data obtained from in-depth interviews with 38 Vietnamese female and male church leaders in 2014–2016, and four months of fieldwork in southern Vietnam between February and May 2016, the paper argues that the assumption of equal rights and citizenship status for all women in the wider society according to the liberal model of ...


Socio-Demographic Predictors Of Political Participation Among Women In Nigeria: Insights From Afrobarometer 2015 Data, Emeka Eugene Dim, Joseph Yaw Asomah 2019 Bridgewater State University

Socio-Demographic Predictors Of Political Participation Among Women In Nigeria: Insights From Afrobarometer 2015 Data, Emeka Eugene Dim, Joseph Yaw Asomah

Journal of International Women's Studies

Despite the important role that women generally play in development processes, they are disproportionally underrepresented in politics and leadership positions compared to men, as exemplified in the case of Nigeria. Using the Afrobarometer data of 2015, this study seeks to examine the socio-economic factors that predict women’s political participation in Nigeria. The study shows that education, religion, place of residence, party affiliation, and geo-political zone predict political participation. Based on the beta values generated from the multivariate linear regression analysis, post-secondary education, South-Eastern geo-political zone, and party affiliation are the most significant predictors of women’s political participation. The ...


Sexism And Gender Profiling: Two Decades Of Stereotypical Portrayal Of Women In Nollywood Films, Kevin Uwaecheghi Onyenankeya, Oluwayemisi Mary Onyenankeya, Oluyinka Osunkunle 2019 Bridgewater State University

Sexism And Gender Profiling: Two Decades Of Stereotypical Portrayal Of Women In Nollywood Films, Kevin Uwaecheghi Onyenankeya, Oluwayemisi Mary Onyenankeya, Oluyinka Osunkunle

Journal of International Women's Studies

Critics of Nollywood especially gender activists, have challenged its predominant, if not exclusive portrayal of women for its narrowly traditional occupational and domestic roles and images. This paper seeks to examine various ways women are depicted in Nollywood films, including physical appearance, domestic and family life, occupational life and interpersonal relationships over a 20 year period spanning the video film era. The research employed a quantitative content method to analyse 10 films while the coding sheet that contained established content categories served as the data gathering instrument. A multistage sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The findings revealed ...


Pornography And Objectification Of Women In Nollywood Films: A Study Of Nigerian Actresses’ Perception Of Acting Sex And Nudity Scenes, Floribert Patrick C Endong 2019 Bridgewater State University

Pornography And Objectification Of Women In Nollywood Films: A Study Of Nigerian Actresses’ Perception Of Acting Sex And Nudity Scenes, Floribert Patrick C Endong

Journal of International Women's Studies

No abstract provided.


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